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The Energy Integration in Southern Africa Jean-Pierre Favennec IFP Professor – Consultant Johannesburg – December 2, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "The Energy Integration in Southern Africa Jean-Pierre Favennec IFP Professor – Consultant Johannesburg – December 2, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Energy Integration in Southern Africa Jean-Pierre Favennec IFP Professor – Consultant Johannesburg – December 2, 2010

2 Summary  Energy in the world  Energy in Africa  Energy in Southern Africa

3 Energy in the World Recent changes : - Reduction of CO2 emissions - Limitations of oil production - New gas situation - Coal - Renewables

4 $/b Source : Platt’s S 404*17 – July 2010 Dated Brent price ($/b) – January 1996 – July 2010 Weekly averages Annual averages


6 Scenario with reduction of emissions Reference Scenario Emissions (Gt CO 2 ) Natural carbone sequestration Captured carbon Fuel switch Wind, Solar, nuclear Biofuels Energy efficiency Source : Commission Européenne CO2 emissions



9 Energy in Africa

10 South and central America North America Africa Asia non OECD Europe China EL 101*1 – April 2009 Source : AIE CIS World electricity generation 2006  World total = TWh Middle East Asia OECD 1786 World electricity production by source (TWh) Coal7756 Natural Gas3807 Nuclear2792 Hydro3035 Oil1096 Renewable435

11 AF004 – October 2009 Source : BP Statistical Review Energy consumption in Africa Mtoe Electricity (primary) Coal Natural gas Oil

12 The energy divides  Divide between Africa and the rest of the world (15% of world population for 3% of world energy consumption)  Divide between North Africa-South Africa and the rest of Africa  Divide between urban and rural areas: Urban areas look like energy spots 3% 7% Region energy consumption proportion Energy barriers North and South Africa: two specific areas

13 Hydroelectricity in Africa Potential

14 Energy Integration in Southern Africa Existing situation Needs in electricity The Integrated Resource Plan What about renewables? Integration : benefits and existing pools

15 Source : African Energy Southern Africa’s power Industry and Interconnections  An existing electrical integration mostly between Mozambique and South Africa H H T T T W H T T T T N N Nuclear Power Plant W Wind Power T Thermal Power Plant H Hydro Power Plant Main power transmission line Remarque : 1 circle = 3 power plants at least except nuclear power plant for which 1 circle = 1 power plant

16 Southern African Power Pool  South Africa represents 81% of SAPP in 2010 and will remain at 77% of SAPP in 2025

17 The Integrated Resource Plan : Context and Description  Obligation after National Energy Act of 2008  Long term electricity capacity plan to develop a sustainable electricity investment strategy for generation capacity and transmission infrastructure for South Africa over the next 25 years.  Demand-side management (DSM)  Pricing  Capacity provided by all generators (Eskom and independant power producers)  Environment

18 The Integrated Resource Plan : Hypothesis  GDP growth on average 4,6 % per year over the next 20 years  It requires from MW to MW of new capacity depending on scenarios for GWh produced in  It assumes at least 3420 MW of demand side management programmes

19 5 models studied to establish the balanced revised scenario  A base case which minimise directs costs  3 emissions limits based scenarios  EM 1.0 : imposes an annual emission limit of 275 MT  EM 2.0 : imposes an emission limit of 275 MT of carbon dioxide by 2025 but allows emissions to go to higher levels prior to 2025  EM 3.0 : imposes a tighter emission limit of 220MT of carbon dioxide from 2020  A Carbon Tax based scenario (CT 0.0) : imposes carbon taxes escalated to 2010 Rands an contained in the LTMS documents  2 others model were studied : a regional developement model and an enhanced DSM model Sources : DOE

20 The Integrated Resource Plan 3 scenariosLow Cost ScenarioBalanced Scenario Low Carbon Scenario Funding (BUS$)7885 (+10%)125 (+60%) Carbon emissions (MT) (-30%)220 (-40%) Generation mix by 2030 Capacity development (MW)

21 The Integrated Resource Plan : Challenges  A huge amount of renewables capacity  Wind : MW in the Balanced scenario up to 2019  Solar : 400 MW  Wind + Solar : MW between 2019 and 2030  Questions raised :  Is it possible to build such capacities : resources, technical problems  Problem of cost and economic rentability?  Ability for quick construction and maintenance?  Problem of grid stability?

22 The Integrated Resource Plan : Challenges (2)  Decentralised electricity not adressed  Importance of transmission lines

23 Integration benefits  Benefits : foster the development of the economy.  Keys actions :  Develop infrastructures  Most important partners :  Mozambique. There is already an important hydro production (Caora Bassa) and new capacities will be built. Mozambique is also supplying natural gas to RSA (Sasol)  Zambia (hydro potential)  Zimbabwe  Limited cooperation :  RDC. RSA is interested in electricity of Inga. But the Chinese presence (exchange of raw materials against investments) makes difficult this cooperation.  Angola  Key issue : transmission

24 Euratom (1957)  Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community)  Success : Legal framework, safety standard uniformisation Progressive enlargement of the cooperation Broad development on innovative technology Decrease in energy dependance Efficient information centralisation about nuclear stocks and flows, and investment Fight against nuclear proliferation  Lacks : Some legislative contents (about normalisation for example) Decision process

25 ECSC (1951)  European Coal and Steel Community  Success : Long term vision and comon process Peace, stability, prosperity, solidarity Efficient response during crisis Autonomous legal framework Uniform social protection and labour law  Lacks : Emergence of great enterprises Difficulty for struggling on price non-accordance and for assuring transparancy No equalization in salary

26 Benefits of integration  In West Africa cost of kwh supposed to be reduced by 50 % if good interconnections between the different countries of WAPP (West African Power Pool)

27 Thank you for your attention!

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