Presentation on theme: "External Voting – a comparative overview External Voting – Voting from abroad 213 countries and territories researched 91 countries and territories allow."— Presentation transcript:
External Voting – a comparative overview External Voting – Voting from abroad 213 countries and territories researched 91 countries and territories allow external voting (as of May 2006) Africa (21), Americas (13), Asia (16), Europe (36), Pacific (6) Positive trend, recently introduced in Mexico, Italy, Ghana...
External Voting – a comparative overview Provisions for external voting exist in 4 additional countries - not yet applied in practise (Angola, Bolivia, Greece, Nicaragua, Mozambique until recently). Some additional countries and territories allow external voting for local elections only. Exceptional practice or abolishment of external voting in i.e. Eritrea and East Timor (referendums related to independence in 1993 and 1999 respectively) and Cambodia 1993 where it was applied on a restrictive scale.
External Voting – a comparative overview The Comparative Overview addresses three variables: Who is entiltled to an external vote Which elections external voting applies to What are the voting methods for external voters
External Voting – a comparative overview Who is entitled to an external vote? 65 countries and allow external voting for all 26 countries – external voting restricted – associated to the voter’s activity and/or length of stay abroad 15 countries – external voting restricted – associated to the length of stay abroad Other restrictions: intention to return (Philippines), geography, nationality)
External Voting – a comparative overview To which type of election does external voting apply? National elections only (51 countries) National and local elections (11 countries) National elections and referendums (19 countries) National and local elections and referendums (9 countries) Referendums only (1 country) National elections include presidential elections where applicable.
External Voting – a comparative overview What are the voting methods for external voters? Voting in person (41 countries) Voting by mail (24 countries) Voting by proxy (1 country) Mixed (of the above) (25 countries) E-voting (Estonia, Netherlands...)
External Voting – a comparative overview Electoral system, ballot paper design and boundary delimitation – design of external voting practises Reserved seats in 7 countries (Croatia, France, Italy, Portugal, Cape verde, Mozambique, Colombia)
External Voting – a comparative overview A comparative overview The history and politics of external voting The legal framework and an overview of electoral legislation Entitlement to vote as an external voter The implementation of external voting External voting and participation Host country Issues The political rights of refugees and displaced persons: enfranchisement and participation
External Voting – a comparative overview The political rights of migrant workers and external voting Observation of external voting E-voting and external voting Case studies: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chad, Colombia, Cook Islands, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Honduras, Indonesia, Iraq, Marshall islands, Mexico, Mozambique, The Philippines, Portugal, Senegal, Switzerland, Zimbabwe.
Why a handbook? To provide tools, options and knowledge to those involved in: Implementing external voting Introducing or discussing the introduction of external voting Improving existing external voting practises Debating external voting Election assistance and election observation Working on issues of political rights and migration Academics, media and others…
E-voting as external voting - pros Convenience to external voters External voters as the ideal test group for remote e- voting Citizens abroad are well organized and capable bringing their needs onto the agenda. Remote e-voting might save costs.
E-voting as external voting - cons Security concerns Financial aspects Equal treatment of all voters (external and internal)
e-voting and external voting: France
e-voting and external voting: Estonia
e-voting and external voting: The Netherlands
e-voting and external voting: New Zealand
e-voting and external voting: Singapore
e-voting and external voting: concluding remarks Voters abroad as a focus group for those countries that are considering the introduction of remote e-voting in. Sometimes urgency for introducing e-voting for external voters is bigger than for introducing it for “internal” voters. Practical difficulties No world-wide trend towards introducing remote e-voting for external voting; only a few countries.
International IDEA Intergovernmental organisation, 24 member states Founded in 1995, financed through contributions To promote sustainable democracy worldwide… Democracy building and conflict management Electoral processes Political parties Political equality and participation 55 staff, 30 nationalities
International IDEA Thank you! Maria Gratschew Electoral Processes Team Strömsborg Stockholm Sweden Phone: Fax: