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The Politics of Party Coalitions in Africa Edited by Denis Kadima.

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Presentation on theme: "The Politics of Party Coalitions in Africa Edited by Denis Kadima."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Politics of Party Coalitions in Africa Edited by Denis Kadima

2 2 Introduction: What? Where? Who? Why? How? What? Political party coalitions/alliances are increasingly a key feature of African politics. Yet, understudied subject. Subject of party coalitions/alliances is understudied. Aim of the study: to document, analyse, explain & compare party coalitions in selected African countries

3 3 Introduction: What? Where? Who? Why? How? What? Definition of Coalition: The coming together of a minimum of two political parties for a certain period, in pursuit of an agreed set of common goals to be reached by means of a common strategy, joint actions, the pooling of resources and the distribution of possible subsequent pay-offs. The words ‘alliance’ and ‘coalition’ are used interchangeably.

4 4 What? (continued) Research questions: –What brings particular political parties together in a coalition? –How are negotiations conducted? –Who is entitled to negotiate? –What are the objectives of these coalitions? –How are coalition partners selected? –What is the legal basis of party alliances? –How does the electoral system in use in the various countries impact on the nature of party coalitions in those countries?

5 5 What? (continued) Research Questions (continued): –What role do ethnicity, race, class and ideology play in the formation (and collapse and revival) of party alliances? –Who are the driving forces behind the alliances? –How are alliance relationships nurtured? –How does the coalition affect intra-party dynamics and vice- versa? –How does the process of selecting coalition candidates impact on women’s representation in Parliament? –What explains the longevity and effectiveness of some alliances while others fall apart or into desuetude? –What impact does coalition-related conflict have on intra-party dynamics? –What have been the consequences of particular alliances on individual political parties?

6 6 Where? Who? Where? The 5 countries under study are: Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique & South Africa Criteria for selecting the 5 countries: –≥ 2 general elections or referenda, –Presidential & parliamentary regimes –FPTP & PR systems –Financial constraints: 5 countries in east & southern Africa –5 countries: a relatively representative sample Who? Co-authors: –Dr Roukaya Kassenally (Mauritius) –Mr Samson Lembani (Malawi) –Mr Zefanias Matsimbe (Mozambique) –Mr Felix Owuor (Kenya) –Mr Denis Kadima (South Africa)

7 7 Why? How? Why? To fill in the knowledge gap To learn lessons & develop good practices for political parties To contribute to the vibrancy of multiparty democracy in Africa How? Primary sources: interviews with representatives of parties under study (serving head of state, ministers, MPs, party leaders and various analysts) Secondary sources (articles and books): –History of party coalitions + MoU –Theories of party coalitions

8 8 How? Theories of Size and Ideology Office-driven theories and Policy-oriented theories Theories of New Institutionalism –Institutional procedures shaping pre-formation (legislative negotiation) –Behavioural norms (pacts, anti-pacts & no coalition with anti-democratic or anti-system parties) –Institution shaping post-formation (decision-making within the coalition – VSPs, MSPs)

9 9 How? How do these theories apply in the African context? The theories apply unevenly from country to country Predictive models tend to be of limited interest in many African countries They pay limited attention to opposition coalitions in favour of executive coalitions They barely address some dominant features of African politics (pervasiveness of ethno-regionalist politics; identity-based voting behaviour; prevalence of presidential regimes; limited opportunities outside state; inadequate institutionalisation of democracy; and structural & organisational weaknesses of parties These theories need to be broadened to encompass these important features for them to be meaningful in African contexts

10 10 How? Book Structure Chapter 1: The Study of Party Coalitions in Africa: Importance, Scope, Theory and Research Methodology By Denis Kadima Chapter 2: Party Coalitions in Post-Apartheid South Africa and their Impact on National Cohesion and Ideological Rapprochement By Denis Kadima Chapter 3: The Formation, Collapse and Revival of Political Party Coalitions in Mauritius: Ethnic Logic and Calculation at Play By Denis Kadima and Roukaya Kasenally Chapter 4: Making, Unmaking and Remaking Political Party Coalitions in Malawi: Explaining the Prevalence of Office-Seeking Behaviour By Denis Kadima and Samson Lembani

11 11 How? Book Structure (continued) Chapter 5: RENAMO União Eleitoral: Understanding the Longevity and Challenges of an Opposition Party Coalition in Mozambique By Denis Kadima and Zefanias Matsimbe Chapter 6: The National Rainbow Coalition: Achievements and Challenges of Building and Sustaining a Broad-Based Political Party Coalition in Kenya By Denis Kadima and Felix Owuor Chapter 7: African Party Alliances: Comparisons, Conclusions and Lessons By Denis Kadima

12 12 Findings, Conclusions and Lessons Factors Influencing the Formation, Survival, Effectiveness and Collapse of Coalitions Types of Political Regimes Types of Electoral Systems Legislation Ethno-linguistic and Regional Factor The Ideology Factor The Financial Security Factor Personality of Leaders Competition & Differences between Coalition Partners Proximity of a general election Inadequate Internal Democracy and Transparency Coalition Agreement and Management Procedures

13 13 Findings, Conclusions and Lessons Impact of Party Coalitions on the Political System Nation-Building Ideological Harmony Party System Political Parties –From provincial parties/leaders to national parties –Political risks Excessive caution by SA parties (ID’s stance; ANC-DA at LG level) Coalitions and Women’s Representation –Hypothesis –No strong correlation between party alliance and women’s political under-representation –3 main factors influencing women’s representation (type of electoral system, party quota system, party leaders’ commitment) to gender –SA and Mozambique ↑ Kenya, Malawi and Mauritius↓

14 14 Findings, Conclusions and Lessons Lessons Learnt and Good Party Coalition Practice Legislation –Legal framework needed for a well-functioning multiparty system & to prevent abuse –Repeal of legal provisions weakening the party system –To avoid extreme regulation of coalitions as this could infringe on freedom of association. Fairness –Not a mere ‘coalition of the willing’. Need for criteria for selecting pre-election alliance partners Honesty and Mutual Trust Conflict Management Mechanisms Need to Involve the Constituents Policy Dialogue Need for an integrated policy platform

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