Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Socialism and African Development PIA 2574. Socialism in Africa At Issue: new look at development strategy the role that ideology has played in effecting.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Socialism and African Development PIA 2574. Socialism in Africa At Issue: new look at development strategy the role that ideology has played in effecting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Socialism and African Development PIA 2574

2 Socialism in Africa At Issue: new look at development strategy the role that ideology has played in effecting performance of state (self-ascribed ideology)

3 The Socialist Framework.Dependency as an alternative form of analysis to Modernization Influence of socialist ideas since 1965 in Africa

4 Tanzania’s Ujamaa Policy President Julius Nyerere Arusha Declaration: 1967: Socialist Declaration- Control Commanding Heights Collectivism and Self-Reliance An approach to agricultural class formation

5 The 1960s-Voluntary Collective Farms Goal: create villages from small family households Self-sustaining economic units of families Primary target- the subsistence farmer official policy but voluntary

6 1970s Goal: Prevention of a rural proletariat Few villages established Government Spending only on “ujamaa villages” Popular Response- poorest areas of the country marginal farming/pastoral areas

7 After 1973 Targets the wealthier areas and the rich farmers “Kulaks”

8 1975 Forced Collectivization and Collapse of Policy

9 Problems with Ujamaa Tanzaphilia- “Socialism and the Field Administrator” Shift from voluntary to compulsory: “Burning Houses” Shift from goal of local level decision-making and village autonomy to centralized decision- making and standardized policies

10 Problems: Collectivization Forced, use of state violence Villages became very large: people or more Target: Universal villagization by the end of 1976 Resistance from Wealthy Farmers

11 Government Reaction Withdrawal Drought, Agricultural Mismanagement Agricultural Collapse Tanzania Moves Towards Policy Reform

12 Regime Types in Africa (Crawford Young) 1. African (Socialist) and mixed Economy regimes: pragmatism or African capitalism (Kenya and Senegal in 1960s) 2. Socialist- Populist (Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique in 1970s)

13 African Regimes 3. Afro-Marxist or Leninist Vanguard regimes (Angola, Benine1980s) 4. Marxist-Leninist- (Ethiopia under Dergue) 5.Post-Structural Adjustment Regimes Mozambique, Uganda and Ghana (1990s)

14 Attractiveness of an ideology Impact of Policy on development in the 1980s Will effect rule making and resource allocation Ideology does make a difference

15 Attractiveness of an ideology There is a measure of internal slack or decision-making authority A choice that can be made (in terms of dependency) that can be made internally Thus Socialist Policies can be tested

16 Evaluation criteria- Five measures re. Socialism ( )

17 Growth 1. Growth is still important- though downplays mineral induced growth and tourism 2. Focus is on peasant based subsistence agriculture rather than export commercial agriculture

18 Result Import Substitution, inflation and decline of food production

19 Equity or distribution: Effects 1. Effect of taxation- especially indirect tax mechanisms (extractive) 2. Pricing policies deflate income for agricultural commodities 3. Relocation of rural resources to urban areas 4. Wage control policies (no strike clauses)

20 Autonomy and self-reliance- 1. Delinkage from the international economy (Autarky) 2. Increased debt burden, continued use of expatriate personnel as planners (often sympathetic) 2. Exploitation of natural resources and foreign exchange outflow

21 Exploitation of Human Rights 1. Goal- human dignity 2. Reality of repression- movement of peoples 3. Economic and political refugees 4. Increased size of security forces

22 Development capacity: Goals and Results 1. Ability to plan and manage state resources and stimulate economic behavior change 2. Expansion of the social capacity of the state 3. The African disaster- Tyrants, corruption and Skimmed public resources

23 Socialism Why has it Failed?

24 Discussion What have you been reading lately? What should others read?


Download ppt "Socialism and African Development PIA 2574. Socialism in Africa At Issue: new look at development strategy the role that ideology has played in effecting."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google