Presentation on theme: "Geography of Poverty: Case Study: Moçambique Rick Bein IUPUI Geography Department Fulbright Schollar to Mozambique 11 Months Sept 2004-August 2005 Teaching."— Presentation transcript:
Geography of Poverty: Case Study: Moçambique Rick Bein IUPUI Geography Department Fulbright Schollar to Mozambique 11 Months Sept 2004-August 2005 Teaching “ Maneio e planificação de Recursos Recreativos ” (Ecotourism) Research 4 Storey Agriculture
Gross Domestic Product Per Capita
Human Development Index
Debt as Percent of Income Fig. 9-20: Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs. Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt.
Rainfall in millimeters: Moçambique
Near the Zimbabwe Border
Elephants dig for water
New Forest Clearing
Moçambique Statistics Population:19.4 million BR 42/1000 DR 20/1000 NIR 2.2% Doubling rate : 32 years Infant Mortality Rate: 215/1000 Life Expectancy : 42 years
17 % of Women Use Contraception in Mozambique
44 % Population Below Age 15
Female Literacy Rates Fig. 9-13a: Female literacy is lower than male literacy (Fig. 9-13b) in many LDCs, with significant gender gaps in parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia.
Gender Differences in School Enrollment Fig. 9-12: As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) Fig. 9-10: The GDI combines four measures of development, reduced by the degree of disparity between males and females.
Types of Households
HIV in Adults above 16% in Moçambique
Number of Students per Teacher
People per Physician
Percent Urban Population Fig. 13-1: Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs.
MAPUTO FROM THE AIR
Maputo Water Front.
Main Catholic Cathedral
Assembly of God Church
Wealthier High-rise Neighborhood
Middle Class Neighborhood
Ecotourism Application for a forestry curriculum Support a national effort to develop tourism as a source for raising foreign capital Course mission: develop a sense of sustainability regarding the use of tourism resources
1. What kind of tourism can Mozambicans appreciate? 2. How can Mozambicans become tourists? Redefining tourism as to what is available for low income nationals
4th year forestry students at Eduardo Mondlane University
Maputo City Parks Portuguese colonial masters created 40 plus city parks in the capital city of Maputo before they left in the early 1970s. Parks still remain on the landscape, but not always used in the manner intended by the Portuguese. Parks remain as a source of recreation for the average Mozambicans.
This Park has become a Farm.
Largo do Ribatejo
Economic Issues of Agriculture Economic issues of commercial farmers –Access to markets –Overproduction –Sustainable agriculture Economic issues of subsistence farmers –Population growth –International trade Increasing food supply
Percentage of Adults in Agriculture
Four Storey Agriculture Dr. F. L. (Rick) Bein, Fulbright Professor Universidade de Eduardo Mondlane Faculdade de Agronomia de Engenharia Florestal Indiana University - Purdue University at Indianapolis Christopher J. Hill Private Consultant Morrungulo, Inhambane, Moçambique
Four Storey Agriculture Occurs in the District of Massinga, in the coastal coconut zone of Inhambane Province, Moçambique Where many different types of crops grow together on the same land.
High Biodiversity Farming This highly bio-diverse mix of at least 20 crops grows to: Various heights, Plant Life Cycles, and Agro-ecological Micro-zones.
The study area: District de Massinga Province of Inhambane, Moçambique
The Four Levels The fourth level, the highest, is occupied by well spaced coconut trees. The third level contains dispersed shorter useful trees. These consist of cashews, planted fruit trees, wild fruit trees and others used for fiber and medicinal purposes. The second level is occupied by plants that grow upright off the ground and includes cassava, corn and sorghum. The first level covers the ground and includes peanuts, cowpeas, pumpkins and cacana.
The fourth level, the highest, is occupied by dispersed coconut trees.
The third level contains dispersed fruit trees and other useful trees like this medicinal tree.
Cassava is grown in the 2nd storey. People eat the leaves and the roots.
Cacana grows wild on the ground in the first level and complements the diet.
The Four Storeys Coconut trees dominate the Caju trees, that shade the Cassava. Cowpeas capture the sunlight that reaches the ground.
The products of Agroforestry Subsistence Cassava Maize Peanuts Cowpeas Fruits (cultivated e Wild) Coconut products Sorghum Products of the Mafura Sweet Potatoes Vegetables Meat Mopane worms Commercial Copra e coconuts Cashew nuts Alcohol distilled from fermented fruits Peanuts Artisan Products Construction Material Firewood & Charcoal Meat
4 Storey Agriculture was a survival strategy that developed by trial and error for more that one thousand years, in which the farmers of Inhambane Province adopted new exotic plants and incorporated them with their native plants.
Security of 4 Storey Agriculture. During war. When markets fail When crops fail Distributes the production of food throughout the year Diversifies the diet
At a village school, students are fascinated by a digital camera.
Employment Changes by Sector
Per Capita GDP US$
Service Sector Employment Fig. 12-1: Over half of workers are employed in the service sector in most MDCs, while a much smaller percentage are in the service sector in most LDCs.