Presentation on theme: "5.3 The Periodic Table (Pages 194- 206) Homework: Page 206 # 3, 4, 5 Case Study Page 202 #1-3 Key Concepts: (Page 206)"— Presentation transcript:
5.3 The Periodic Table (Pages 194- 206) Homework: Page 206 # 3, 4, 5 Case Study Page 202 #1-3 Key Concepts: (Page 206)
The modern periodic table is organized according to the atomic numbers of the elements. When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a regular pattern in the properties of elements. The three main classes of elements are metals, non-metals, and metalloids.
Metals are usually solids at room temperature, shiny, good conductors, malleable and ductile. Nonmetals are usually gases or solids at room temperature, not shiny, poor conductors, brittle, and not ductile. Metalloids share properties of both metals and non-metals.
Poisoning by metals in the environment is a serious problem. Mercury contamination of fish has severely affected the health and traditional practices of aboriginal peoples. In the periodic table, a period is a horizontal row of elements. A group, or family, is a vertical column of elements.
Elements that are in the same group have similar properties. Four major groups of elements are the alkali metals, alkaline- earth metals, halogens and the noble gases.
1. What is an atomic mass? The average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
2. Why did Mendeleev not consider the number of subatomic particles as a way to organize the elements? Mendeleev did not organize the elements according to subatomic particles since he did not know about them as they were discovered much later.
3. How is the modern periodic table organized? The modern periodic table is organized according to increasing atomic number. The elements are also grouped according to electron shells (levels).
4. What are synthetic elements? Where do you find the synthetic elements in the periodic table? Synthetic elements are those elements that have been made by scientists. The synthetic elements in the periodic table are found amongst the elements that have atomic numbers more than 93.
5. Copy down Table 5.2 MATERIALSTATE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE APPEARANCECONDUCTIVITYMALLEABILITY AND DUCTILITY MetalsSolid (except for mercury, which is a liquid) ShinyGood conductors of heat and electricity Malleable and ductile Non-metalsSome gases and some solids (except bromine, which is a liquid) Not very shinyPoor conductors of heat and electricity Brittle and not ductile
Periods and Groups in the Periodic Table: The elements are arranged in horizontal rows and vertical columns. The correct name for each vertical column is a group. Elements in the same chemical family are located in the same group. The horizontal rows are called periods. There are 18 groups and 7 periods in the periodic table.
The Invention of Chemical Symbols: The system of chemical symbols that we use today was first proposed by the Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius. This system was accepted all around the world. It was accepted not only because it provided symbols for all the known elements, but also because it showed how to create symbols for any new element that might be discovered later.
LanguageName of ElementSymbol EnglishHydrogenH FrenchHydroge’neH GermanWasserstoffH ItalianIdrogenoH PortugueseHidrogenioH SpanishHidrogenoH
Five Rules to Determine the Symbols: Rule 1: The first letter of the name of the element. Examples: Oxygen 0Hydrogen HCarbon C Fluorine FNitrogen NBoron B
Rule2: The first two letters of the name of the element. Examples: Krypton KrArgon ArLithium Li Nickel NiBeryllium BeXenon Xe
Rule 3: The first letter and one later letter of the name of the element. Examples: Manganese MnRadon RnChlorine Cl Magnesium MgRubidium RbAstatine At
Rule 4: Later elements- named after countries, continents, scientists, place of discovery, or planets Countries and Continents: Americanium AmEuropium EuGermanium Ge Polonium PoFrancium FrIndium In Place of discovery: Californium CfBerkelium Bk Name of scientists: Einsteinium Es Fermium Ruthorfordium Mendelevium Name of a Planet: PlutoniumUraniumMercuryNeptunium _____________________________________
Rule 5 The seven metals known to the ancients were called by their Latin names. Examples: Natrium (Na) Sodium Kalium (K) Potassium Hydragyrum (Hg) Mercury Aurum (Au) Gold Argentum (Ag) Silver Ferrum (Fe) Iron Plumbum (Pb)Lead