Presentation on theme: "LEARNING‘S FROM FOOD SAFETY OUTBREAKS (A Consumer Perspective) Dr. Sitaram Dixit Chairman, CGSI Toll Free Complaint Number 1800 2222 62."— Presentation transcript:
LEARNING‘S FROM FOOD SAFETY OUTBREAKS (A Consumer Perspective) Dr. Sitaram Dixit Chairman, CGSI Toll Free Complaint Number 1800 2222 62
WHAT IS FOOD SAFETY OUTBREAKS? Food borne illness - Commonly called food poisoning. Causes : Food or beverages contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites, or moulds. Pathogens or harmful microbes produce toxins / poisons. High Risk : babies, children, seniors, pregnant women, sick people, people with less resistance to illness (transplant and cancer patients, AIDS, etc.)
Symptoms : Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps, headache, fever, etc. Duration : Days, weeks, months, etc. Outcome : mild illness, serious illness, hospitalization, even death. Contaminated food: May look, taste & smell normal. Indications : Most times symptoms do not develop immediately on consumption of food but only after some time.
E.coli, infection can take 2 - 10 days to develop illness. Salmonella can take 6 - 72 hours for symptoms. Small number of microbes sufficient to cause infection e.g., Shigella, infection and E.coli, infection. Spreading : contact, touching an animal, swimming or wading in recreation pool or dirty contaminated water. When 2 or more people have symptoms of food borne illness after eating same food it is called outbreak. Over 100 affected persons is a large outbreak.
Causes of food borne illness Microbes (germs) : Tiny organisms, we cannot see but live around us in plants, animals, air, soil, water, etc. Good microbes : Yogurt / Dahi, Lassi, Idli, Dokla, etc. Pathogenic microbes : Parasites, moulds, viruses, and bacteria cause harm and illness. Microbes need time and right conditions to increase in number, produce toxins or poisons to cause illness.
Parasites Microbes that live on or in other organisms. They do not grow on food. Giardia and Cryptosporidium, found in untreated water. Parasites are destroyed by heating and freezing. Some parasites we can see, e.g., insects & worms, roundworm, tapeworm, etc.
Parasites - Control Boil water to make it safe for drinking. Wash hands after using toilet. Wash hands before preparing and eating food. Cook food to safe temperatures. Use safe water supplies.
Wash all fresh fruits and vegetables before consuming. Check and make sure that fresh fruits and vegetables you buy are not bruised or damaged. Check that fresh cut fruits and vegetables like packaged salads and precut melons are refrigerated at the store before buying. Do not buy fresh cut items that are not refrigerated.
Moulds Moulds spoil food, some produce toxins / poisons. Good mould is used in cheese making, Mushrooms. Moulds grow on warm, moist, and places with good supply of air. In acidic food like oranges, tomatoes, and sugary foods like jams, etc. Avoid cross contamination.
Viruses - Control Wash hands after using toilet. Wash hands before preparing and eating food. Cook food to safe temperatures. Use safe water supplies. Wash all fresh fruits and vegetables before consuming.
Bacteria Found everywhere in our environment. Most bacteria’s are harmless. Some are useful. Some and harmful and cause food borne illness. Pathogens are found in human and animal waste, soil, raw meat, poultry and fish.
CONTAMINATED WATER Bacillus cereusNausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea Staphylococcus aureus, Entero-toxins-A,B,C,D or E Increased salivation, vomiting, abdominal cramp, diarrhoea, severe thirst, cold sweats, prostration Clostridium. perfringens, (Welchii) type A Nausea, abdominal pains, diarrhoea, gas formation Virus of infectious, Hepatitis (virus A) Infectious hepatitis Fluoride Excess fluoride causes fluorosis (mottling of teeth, skeletal and neurological disorders) Nitrates and Nitrites Methaemoglobinaemia especially in infants, cancer and tumours in the liver, kidney, trachea oesophagus and lungs. The liver is the initial site but afterwards tumours appear in other organs. Pesticide residues (beyond safe limit) Acute or chronic poisoning with damage to nerves and vital organs like liver, kidney, etc.
Factors favoring bacterial growth Food : Foods rich in Proteins, vitamins, and minerals, meat poultry, fish, eggs, diary products, cooked vegetables, cooked grains, also salads and green fruits and vegetables. Potentially hazardous food should be safely stored and prepared. Acidity (pH is a measurement of acidity or alkalinity) High acidic foods stop bacterial growth, but do not kill them. Bacteria’s prefers slightly acidic foods as meat, poultry & fish. Time
Temperature Bacteria’s grow when temperature is between 4 C to 60 C multiplying every 15-20 minutes (Danger Zone). Below 4 C : Bacteria survive but grows slowly. Above 60 C : Bacteria stops growing. Oxygen (Air) Most bacteria need air or oxygen to grow. Clostridium botulinum can grow only in absence of oxygen. Moisture (Water) Most bacteria need air or oxygen to grow.
Bacteria - Control Keep potentially hazardous food out of ‘Danger Zone’ temperature i.e., 4 C to 60 C (2 hours Maximum). Keep food below 4 C or above 60 C. Cook food to safe temperatures (Reheat to 74 C min). Chill hot food quickly. (Rapid cooling technique). Wash hands before preparing and eating food. Clean and sanitize utensils, container and food preparation surfaces.
How food borne illness spread Animals Raw meat, poultry, fish (salmonella, Camppylobacter, E.coli), Insects, mice, pests, etc. People People carry microbes in their intestinal tract (E.coli, salmonella) and spread through the fecal-oral route. Staphylococcus Aureus (Staph) is present on skin, nose, throat and spread through coughing, sneezing, touching, infected cuts and sores on hands, etc.
How food borne illness spread Soil Fruits & Vegetables can contain (Salmonella, E.coli), on outer surface. E.g., tomatoes. Water Untreated water from lakes, streams, are rivers carry microbes E.coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus Aureus (Staph), and parasites like Cryptosporidium and Giardia.
How food borne illness spread Chemicals Naturally poisonous food, e.g., some types of mushrooms (Amanita species). Food contaminated with synthetic chemicals Excessive use of food additives (MSG). Pesticides residues. Adulterants: Contamination & Intentional.
CONTAMINATED WATER ArsenicDizziness, chills, cramps, paralysis, death Barium Violent peristalsis, arterial hypertension, muscular twitching, convulsions, cardiac disturbances Cadmium ‘Itai-itai (ouch-ouch) disease, Increased salivation, acute gastritis, liver and kidney damage, prostrate cancer CobaltCardiac insufficiency and myocardial failure Lead Lead poisoning (foot-drop, insomnia, anaemia, constipation, mental retardation, brain damage) CopperVomiting, diarrhoea TinColic, vomiting ZincColic, vomiting MercuryBrain damage, paralysis, death
Allergens Milk & Dairy products Eggs, Wheat Soy Peanuts Tree nuts (almonds, cashew nuts, Brazilian nuts) Fish Shellfish Chemicals
Steps to safe food 1. 1. Buying & Receiving Food I. I.Buy only from approved suppliers. II. II.Check storage is at safe temperatures. III. III.Check for best before dates, expiry dates, signs of spoilage, damage, insects, etc.
Reading the Labels on Foods Food labelling is confusing. The front of packaging often tells a different story to the back. if it purports to be, or is represented as being for special dietary uses, unless its label bears the prescribed information concerning its dietary properties, if it contains any artificial flavoring, coloring or chemical preservatives without declaring the same on the label, or in violation of the requirements or not labeled in accordance with the requirements of this Act and the Rules made there under Food label You cannot trust the front of the pack – you need to read the back !
Steps to safe food 2. 2. Storing Food I. I.Put fresh and frozen foods in refrigerators, freezers, etc., as soon as it is delivered or bought home. II. II.Follow FIFO rule. III. III.Maintain good air circulation in fridges, do not overload.
3. 3. Preparing food I. I.Wash hands before preparing food. II. II.Wash fruits, vegetables and salad greens with cool, running water to remove dirt, insects, microbes and pesticides residues. Leafy products like spinach, coriander and curry leaves may need several rinses. III. III.DO NOT use detergent’s or bleach to wash fresh fruits or vegetables. IV. IV.Ready to eat salad mixes have short life. Check best before date and use ASAP.
IV. IV.Thawing frozen foods in refrigerator: Place frozen foods on a tray or plate and put on the bottom shelf. V. V.Thawing in cold running water: Use large sinks. Clean and sanitize the sink after thawing. VI. VI.In microwave oven: Cook immediately after the food in thawed. VII. VII.Thawing in room temperature is unsafe. VIII. VIII.Work quickly with food so that it spends minimum time in the danger zone. (4 C to 60 C ; 2 hours Maximum)
IX. IX.Do not store or display food in the danger zone. X. X.Avoid cross contamination (spread of microbes from one food to another) by hand, utensils or equipment, or direct touch between raw food and cooked food. XI. XI.Keep meat, poultry and fish away from cooked or ready to eat, food. XII. XII.Use separate cutting boards for raw animal foods and vegetables and fruit. XIII. XIII.Use separate knives, spoons, ladles, etc., for cooked and raw food always.
XIV. XIV. Clean and sanitize all equipment, utensils or surface that touch food. XV. XV.Change aprons, dress that are soiled with blood from meat, poultry and fish. XVI. XVI. Change dish cloth and wiping cloths frequently. When not in use keep dry after cleaning in a sanitizing solution. XVII. XVII. Change sanitizing solution if dirty or soiled. XVIII. XVIII. Use a clean spoon to taste food do not stick you fingers in food.
4. 4. Cooking Food I. I.Cook or heat food to safe temperatures 74 C to kill most bacteria’s 5. 5. Cooling Food I. I.Cool food quickly to 4 C or colder to reduce the risk of food borne diseases. II. II.Food should cool from 60 C to 20 C or less within 2 hours and from 20 C to 4 C or less within 4 hours.
6. 6. Hot and Cold holding of Food I. I.Hot holding units must keep food at 60 C or above. II. II.Cold holding units must keep food at 4 C or below. III. III.Avoid keeping food in danger zone. IV. IV.Do not add fresh portions of food to old food. V. V.Use covers to protect food from contamination. VI. VI.Have separate spoons for each food container.
7. 7. Reheating Food I. I.Reheat left over food quickly to 74 C or higher within 2 hours to reduce the risk of food borne diseases. II. II.Do not heat food more than once. III. III.Bring soups, stews, gravies and stock to a boil. IV. IV.Do not use hot holding equipment for reheating it should hot before placing in the hot holding equipment.
8. 8. Serving Food I. I.Pick cutlery by handles. II. II.Do not touch rim of glasses and cups. III. III.Throw out chipped and cracked glassware and dishes. IV. IV.Do not touch food and drinks with bare hands. V. V.Use tongs, spoons, scoops etc., to handle food. VI. VI.Throw any food that falls on the floor.
VII. VII.Prevent cross contamination. VIII. VIII.Clean and sanitize cutlery that falls on the floor. IX. IX.Throw away left over food on individual plates. X. X.Wash, Clean and sanitize. XI. XI.Do not use disposable cutlery and dishes again. XII. XII.Wash hands after touching dirty dishes and cutlery. XIII. XIII.Follow good personal hygiene standards.
Sanitizing Agents 1. 1. Chlorine or sodium hypochlorite bleaches. 2. 2. Quats (Quaternary ammonium compounds). 3. 3. Iodine (Iodophor compounds). 4. 4. Hot water if used should be at 77 C or above. 5. 5. Surface contact time minimum 2 minutes.
Buy branded, BIS / ISI, Agmark, FSSAI marked products. Branded item: Quality doubt approach company concerned. Preserve: Grocery bills so that the company can take necessary steps regarding any complaint If you find, the quality of food is doubtful DO NOT EAT. Complain to FDA in your city / town / district and report to the newspapers and make more and more people aware for authorities take action under Food Safety Act 2006. Contact CGSI for any guidance @ 1800 2222 62 (Toll Free) What Can WE as Consumers Do ?
Dr. Sitaram Dixit Chairman – CGSI Independent Consultant Home & Personal Care, Flavours & Fragrances Cellular: +919967607095 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: htpp://www.sitaramdixit.4t.com htpp://www.dixitsitaram.itgo.com