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Suzanne D'Anna1 Composition of Matter. Suzanne D'Anna2 Composition of Matter l all matter is composed of ELEMENTS l elements cannot be decomposed or broken.

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Presentation on theme: "Suzanne D'Anna1 Composition of Matter. Suzanne D'Anna2 Composition of Matter l all matter is composed of ELEMENTS l elements cannot be decomposed or broken."— Presentation transcript:

1 Suzanne D'Anna1 Composition of Matter

2 Suzanne D'Anna2 Composition of Matter l all matter is composed of ELEMENTS l elements cannot be decomposed or broken down by ordinary chemical means l 109 elements 90% occur naturally l elements are given letter abbreviations l 26 of the 92 naturally occurring elements are present in your body

3 Suzanne D'Anna3 Four Elements make up 96% of the Human Body l carbon (C) % l hydrogen (H) % l nitrogen (N) - 3.0% l oxygen (O) %

4 Suzanne D'Anna4 Elements inThe Human Body 3.9 % l Calcium (Ca) l Phosphorus (P) l Potassium (K) l Sulfur (S) l Sodium (Na) l Chlorine (Cl) l Magnesium (Mg) l Iodine (I) l Iron (Fe)

5 Suzanne D'Anna5 Trace Elements in Human Body 0.1% l Aluminum (Al) l Boron (B) l Chromium (Cr) l Cobalt (Co) l Copper (Cu) l Fluorine (F) l Manganese (Mn) l Molybdenum (Mo) l Selenium (Se) l Silicon (Si) l Tin (Sn) l Vanadium (V) l Zinc (Zn)

6 Suzanne D'Anna6 Atoms l smallest part of an element capable of entering into chemical reactions l Consist of three major subatomic particles: - protons - neutrons - electrons l each element is unique (atoms differ)

7 Suzanne D'Anna7 Major Subatomic Particles of Atoms: l protons - positive charge (p + ) - located within the nucleus l neutrons - no charge or neutral (n o ) - located within the nucleus l electrons - negative charge (e - ) - orbit the dense core of nucleus

8 Suzanne D'Anna8 Electrical Charge of a Particle l the number of protons (p + ) in an atom is equal to the number of electrons (e - ) l therefore the atom is electrically neutral

9 Suzanne D'Anna9 Electrical Charge of a Particle l a measure of its ability to attract or repel other charged particles l particles of same charge repel l particles of unlike charge attract l neutral particles do not attract or repel

10 Suzanne D'Anna10 Atomic Number l the number of protons in an atom l therefore if the atom has two protons the atomic number is 2 2

11 Suzanne D'Anna11 Atomic Weight l sum of the weight of the protons and neutrons contained in the nucleus 2 protons + 2 neutrons = 4 (atomic weight) 4

12 Suzanne D'Anna12 atomic weight = 6 protons +6 neutrons 12 (atomic weight) atomic number = the number of protons Carbon 12 6

13 Suzanne D'Anna13 Hydrogen atomic weight = 1 proton +0 neutrons 1 (atomic weight) atomic number = the number of protons 1 1

14 Suzanne D'Anna14 Beryllium atomic weight = 4 protons +5 neutrons 9 (atomic weight) atomic number = the number of protons 4 9

15 Suzanne D'Anna15 Oxygen atomic weight = 16 8 protons +8 neutrons 16 (atomic weight) atomic number = 8 the number of protons electron

16 Suzanne D'Anna16 Isotopes l are atoms of an element that have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons l each atom of an element may be different depending on the # of neutrons l neutron variation makes an isotope l radioactive are unstable (because of increased mass of additional neutrons)

17 Suzanne D'Anna17 Isotopes (cont.) l same # of electrons l same # of protons l different # of neutrons l thus - same atomic number - different atomic weight or mass

18 Suzanne D'Anna18 Radioactive Isotopes l nuclear structure decays becoming more stable l atomic nuclei tend to weaken in heavier isotopes l spontaneous atomic decay l in decaying they release particles or energy i.e. radiation (alpha or beta particles or gamma rays) l damaging to living tissues

19 Suzanne D'Anna19 Radioactive Isotopes (cont.) l alpha particles - least damaging l beta particles - more damaging l gamma rays - most damaging

20 Suzanne D'Anna20 Radioactive Isotopes (cont.) l in the body they are used to tag (or attach to) biological molecules enabling them to be traced through the body l valuable for diagnosis l PET scans use radioisotopes to diagnose l radioisotope of iodine (I-131) can be used to check circulation through lungs or to scan the thyroid glands

21 Suzanne D'Anna21 Radioactive Isotopes (cont.) l Thallium-201 is used to image the heart (thallium imaging) and to assess adequacy of blood flow to the heart muscle. l (bone scan) used to study bones l (PET scan) used to study the brain l (lung scan) used to study the lung l (kidney scan) used to study the kidney l radium - used to destroy localized cancers

22 Suzanne D'Anna22 Periodic Table

23 Suzanne D'Anna23


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