Presentation on theme: "ACTUAL QUESTIONS OF MUNICIPAL HYGIENE (PROBLEMS OF URBANIZATION, HYGIENE OF HOUSING, MICROCLIMATE, ILLUMINATION, HEATING, VENTILATION, WATER AND WATER."— Presentation transcript:
ACTUAL QUESTIONS OF MUNICIPAL HYGIENE (PROBLEMS OF URBANIZATION, HYGIENE OF HOUSING, MICROCLIMATE, ILLUMINATION, HEATING, VENTILATION, WATER AND WATER SUPPLY, SOIL, SANITARY PURIFICATION OF SETTLEMENTS ) Lecturer: Kostiantyn Zagorodniuk Kiev – 2 4. 1 0.201 3
PLAN OF THE LECTURE 1.The main aspects of urbanization. Problems of urbanization. Hygiene of settlements. 2. Microclimate. Illumination. Heating. Ventilation.Their Significance. 3. Natural composition of water. 3. Types of water. 4. Water and Health. 5. Hygienic significance of water 6. Household and potable role of water 7. Hygienic requirements for the quality of potable water 8. Quantity of water-supply to the settlements 9. Systems of water-supply to the settlements 10. Soil and health 11. Hygienic significance of soil
URBANIZATION O Urbanization or Urbanisation means the removal of the rural characteristics of a town or area, a process associated with the development of civilisation. Demographically, the term denotes redistribution of populations from rural to urban settlements.
URBANIZATION TODAY O The twentieth century witnessed the rapid urbanization of the world’s population. The global proportion of urban population increased from a mere 13 per cent in 1900 to 29 per cent in 1950 and, according to the 2005 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects, reached 49 per cent in 2005. Since the world is projected to continue to urbanize, 60 per cent of the global population is expected to live in cities by 2030. The rising numbers of urban dwellers give the best indication of the scale of these unprecedented trends: the urban population increased from 220 million in 1900 to 732 million in 1950, and is estimated to have reached 3.2 billion in 2005, thus more than quadrupling since 1950. According to the latest United Nations population projections, 4.9 billion people are expected to be urban dwellers in 2030.
URBANIZATION PROJECTIONS O According to the UN-HABITAT 2006 Annual Report, in the middle of 2007, the majority of people worldwide will be living in towns or cities, for the first time in history; this is referred to as the arrival of the "Urban Millennium". In regard to future trends, it is estimated 93% of urban growth will occur in Asia and Africa, and to a lesser extent in Latin America and the Caribbean. By 2050 over 6 billion people, two thirds of humanity, will be living in towns and cities.UN-HABITAT20062007AsiaAfricaLatin AmericaCaribbean
O There is a very big question related to Third World urbanization: Will it prove beneficial for people's lives?
PROBLEMS OF URBANIZATION O Town-building O Town-planning and urban development O Improvement of the occupied places O Food problem solving O Environmental protection (Ecological) O Care of public health
THE MAIN TASKS OF HYGIENE AT SETTLEMENTS PLANNING: 1. Development and scientific substantiation of hygienic specifications. 2. Introduction of building norms and rules. 3. Control over observance of sanitary requirements: 3.1. To a choice and tap of territory under settlements. 3.2. At long-range planning of industrial enterprises placing at the settlements territory. 3.3. During designing, construction and reconstruction of the industrial enterprises. 3.4. At changes and reshaping of technological processes at the industrial enterprises. 3.5. During setting in operation of apartment houses, public constructions, the industrial enterprises. 3.6. Realization of sanitary-and-hygienic supervision of the further building and improvement of settlements.
Microclimate. Its significance O Microclimate – complex of physical factors of environment that influence on thermoregulation of human organism O Microclimate is formed of: air temperature, object (radiation) temperature, air humidity, air movement, atmospheric pressure. O Microclimate can be comfort, heating and cooling
Illumination. Its significance O Illumination is essential to get the information about the surrounding world. Around 90% percent of information we get throu our eyes. O Illumination can be Natural and Artificial. O Illumination should be hygienicaly adequate in order to keep our eyes health.
Ventilation. Its significance O Ventilation is needed to maintain indoor air maximaly close to outdoor in chemical composition. O Main significance of ventilation is to reduce the concentration of CO 2 and increase the concentration of O 2 in the indoor air. O Ventilation can be natural and artificial. Artificial V. divides on forced air inflow, forced air outflow and both forced air inflow and outflow.
Heating. Its significance O Heating – is complex measures needed to sustain comfortable microclimate indoor (houses, flats, rooms, etc). O Heating can be central and local
WATER AND LIFE. NATURAL WATER COMPOSITION O Natural water – is the complex disperse system which consists of dispersive medium - chemical compound (H 2 O) & disperse phase: O gases (oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (СO 2 ), hydrogen sulfite (H 2 S), hydrogen (H 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), methane (CH 4 ); O mineral salts (chlorides, sulfates & nitrates of alkaline & alkaline-earth metals); O more then 65 microelements found out in water divided into 3 groups: (1 – essential (iron, iodine, copper, selenium, molybdenum, fluorine, etc; 2 - conditionally essential (arsenic, boron, bromine, lithium, etc; 3 – toxic microelements (aluminium, cadmium, mercury, plumbum (lead), etc) O inorganic substances (salts, acids, etc) which in water can dissociate to cations of metals (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ ) or hydrogen (H + ) & anions of acid residuals (Cl –, SO 4 2–, HCO 3 –, CO 3 2– ) or hydroxyl anions (OH – ). O organic substances (simple – urea & glucose; complex – proteins, fats, carbohydrates); O microorganisms (bacterium, viruses, fungi, protozoa, helminths)
TYPES OF WATER 1. Water of centralized household water supply sources: 3.1. Underground: middle pressured water (artesian) and middle not unpressured water; 3.2. Surface (the rivers, lakes, water basins, aryk, channels) reservoirs; 2. Tap water; 3. Hot tap water; 4. Bottled water; 5. Water of wells and capping springs; 6. Mineral waters (highly mineralised); 7. Technical water for industrial enterprises; 8. Water for special purposes (pharma industry, etc.).
HYGIENIC SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER O Hygienic significance of water is determined by its physiological role for the human organism, its epidemic and endemic (including a technogenic origin) significance as well as a role of water for the house holding, for the industries and agriculture.
PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER O Physiological needs for water - 2,5-3 liters on average. It depends on organism power inputs: 1 kcal of generated energy require for 1 ml of water. Average daily power inputs of the person is 3000 kcal
WATER IS UNIVERSAL SOLVENT O Transport O Absorption O Splitting O Oxidation O Hydrolysis O Synthesis O Diffusion O Resorption O Filtration O Eexcretion, etc. Water maintenances temperature homeostasis
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER (1 of 2) Infectious diseases caused by polluted water: 1. Intestinal infections (main is fecal-oral transmitting mechanism): - bacterial etiology (cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, colienteritis) - virus etiology (virus hepatitis A & E, poliomyelitis, Coxsackie virus & ЕСНО; - protozoal etiology (amebiasis, lambliasis) 2. Infections of respiratory tract (sometimes causative agent may have fecal-oral transmitting mechanism) - bacterial etiology (tuberculosis); - virus etiology (adenoviral infections);
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER (1 of 2) 3. Dermatoses with fecal-oral transmitting mechanism (Siberian ulcer) 4. Blood infections (possible fecal-oral transmitting mechanism) – (Cu – fever) 5. Zooanthroponosis (possible fecal-oral transmitting mechanism) – (tularaemia, leptospirosis, brucellosis) 6. Helminthosis: - geohelminthosis (ascaridiasis, ankylostomiasis); - biohelmenthosis (echinococcosis, hymenolepiasis) 7. Skin Diseases as result of contact with polluted water (leprosy, trachoma) 8. Diseases caused by living in water helminths (Schistosomiasis, Dracunculus medinensis) 9. Transmittable infections (malaria, yellow fever)
PECULIARITY OF WATER EPIDEMIC Morbidity has 3 peaks tail due to the duration of the incubatory period of a disease : gastroenteritis 1—3 days cholera — 1—5 days dysentery — 1—7 days paratyphoid А and В — 7—14 days typhoid fever— 14—21 days viral hepatitis А and Е — more then 30 days.
SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY OF THE OCCUPIED PLACES 1. CENTRALIZED 2. DECENTRALIZED Centralized drinking water supply - provide the mechanized lifting of water from sources, it treating, disinfecting and delivering to the consumers by network of water pipes. Decentralized system of drinking water supply - provides a lifting of soil water using wells, which are the constructions which are simultaneously carrying out functions of water-intaking, water- elevating and water-folding constructions.
ADVANTAGES OF CENTRALISED WATER SUPPLY 1) The opportunity to choose the best source of water. 2) The opportunity to provide sanitary protection of a source 3) The opportunity to provide, if necessary, an opportunity of improvement of quality of water. 4) The opportunity to provide the population with necessary quantity of qualitative potable water. 5) The opportunity to provide the appropriate technological and hygienic control over a mode of preparation and quality of potable water.
REQUIREMENTS TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY OF CENTRALIZED WATER SUPPLY Applies to tap drinking water at centralized domestic and drinking water supply Quality criteria of drinking water and their optimal values introduced in the State Sanitary Rules and Norms (SSanR&N) 2.2.4-171-10 «Hygienic requirements for drinking waterdestined for human consumption». Approved by Ministry of Health of Ukraine #400 from 12.05.2010. Organoleptic properties Chemical composition Microbiological parameters Radiational safety
The bottom layer (LITHOSPHERE itself) Formed from the parent igneous rocks under the influence of climate and weather The top layer - SOIL Formed under the influence of climate, microorganisms and higher (vascular) plants The bottom layer is SOIL itself The top layer (25 sm depth) is ARABLE or HUMUS layer
LITOSPHERE The lithosphere (from Anicient Greek λίθος [lithos] for "rocky” and σφα ῖ ρα [sphaira] for "sphere”) is the rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet. On Earth, it comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater.
SOIL Soil is the most superficial layer of the lithosphere formed from parent igneous rocks under the influence of climate, microorganisms and vegetation and is a complex multicomponent low dynamic system consisting of mineral and organic solids, soil moisture and air and populated by micro and macro-organism. Soils are very different depending on conditions of their formation, first of all on climate and flora. In Ukraine most common are chernozem (black earth soils) (54.0 % of territory), then –– grey forest soils (18.2 % of territory) and sod-podsol soils (7.8 % of territory).
COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL Bioticpart Abiotic part SolidsubstanceSoilmoistureSoilair Autochthonou s (inherent) microflora. Provides self- purification processes in soil. Mineral (inorganic) substances: Crystalline silica (quartz); alumino- silicates, salts, bases and acids; Organic matter - humus. hygroscopi c water; film (membrane) water; capillary water; free gravitationa l water. The mixture of gases and vapors, which fills the pores of the soil.
HYGIENIC SIGNIFICANCE OF SOIL O Cruicial role in forming of all live on the Earth; O Takes part in nutrition chain; O Forms chemical composition of air, water, food (vegetables, meat, etc); O Epidemic significance (transmitting of infectious diseases); O Endemic significance (lack or excess of essential minerals, which results in diseases); O Sanitary significance (purification of settlements)