Presentation on theme: "PRECISION AGRICULTURE AND FOOD & NUTRITION SECURITY"— Presentation transcript:
1 PRECISION AGRICULTURE AND FOOD & NUTRITION SECURITY Peter Aboagye WIAD-MOFA Ghana
2 Outline Food and nutrition security situation in Africa Nutrition and national developmentFactors accounting for the current food & nutrition situation in AfricaEfforts at increasing food and nutrition securityPotential of precision/climate smart agriculture to African’s food securityChallenges of precision agricultureWay forward to improving African’s for security
3 Food and nutrition security situation in Africa Food insecurity is not a new challenge for Africa.For more than 20 years, the continent has struggled with hunger and food insecurity.Out of 870m people in the world were suffering from chronic undernourishment, 852m live in developing countriesThe number of undernourished people decreased nearly 30 percent in Asia and the Pacific, largely due to socio-economic progress in many countries in the region.
4 Food and nutrition security situation in Africa cont’d Latin America and the Caribbean also made progress, falling from 65m hungry in 1990-’92 to 49m in 2010-’12.The number of hungry grew in Africa over the period, from 175m to 239m, with nearly 20m added in the last few years.Nearly 1 in 4 are hungry.In sub-Saharan Africa, the modest progress achieved in recent years up to 2007 was reversed, with hunger rising 2 percent per year since then.
5 Food and nutrition security situation in Africa cont’d In Eastern Africa alone, 16 million people are estimated to experience “stressed to emergency” levels of food insecurity, caused mostly by a lack of rain, conflict, high food prices and an inability to access humanitarian assistance (UNOCHA, 2012).Africa accounts for 28 of the 35 countries that need external food assistance (FAO, 2012)According to the Global Hunger Index, Africa has long been a “hungry continent,” based on the countries’ scoring of moderate to extremely alarming levels of hunger since 1990.
7 Food and nutrition security situation in Africa cont’d Between 1990 and 2010, Africa had the lowest average value of food production of any region (FAO, 2013).Southern, East, Central and West Africa had the lowest values of food production in the periods compared.On a positive note, Africa’s average value of food production has increased, which implies an improvement in food production.But high and volatile food prices have affected consumers’ ability to purchase food and driven many African farmers into poverty
8 Domestic food price level index volatility, 1995–2012
9 Food and nutrition security situation in Africa cont’d Most African countries scored between 20 and 40 over 1990–2012, with only modest reductions in their indices (modest improvements in hunger).Note, however, that Africa’s overall hunger in 2012 was lower than in 1990, indicating an improvement in food security.Over 1990–2012, North Africa maintained low to moderate hunger, while Ethiopia improved the most, from 42.2 to 28.7.
10 TABLE 9.1: GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX SCORE BY RANK 1990, 2001, 2012 Country19901996200120121Libya< 52Tunisia3Algeria6.77.364Morocco22.214.171.124Egypt85.3Gabon126.96.36.199.47Mauritius8.07.46.0South Africa6.55.89Ghana21.416.312.88.910Swaziland9.312.612.910.911Mauritania22.616.716.611.112Congo23.624.115.711.413Lesotho13.613.911.914Namibia20.319.113.215Botswana13.415.413.716Senegal18.319.619.217Benin21.320.116.814.618The Gambia16.215.619Nigeria20.918.220Uganda18.717.316.121Mali27.826.32322Guinea22.421.6Malawi29.927.522.524Burkina Faso23.521.817.2
11 TABLE 9.1: GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX SCORE BY RANK 1990, 2001, 2012 Country199019962001201225Zimbabwe18.622.321.317.326Cameroon21.622.21917.427Côte d’Ivoire16.517.816.618.228Guinea-Bissau 420.720.821.418.429Liberia22.725.218.930Togo26.42223.331Kenya20.419.332Tanzania23.225.933Rwanda28.232.725.619.734Sudan28.724.521.535Djibouti30.825.725.321.736Niger36.435.930.537Madagascar24.123.824.922.538Mozambique35.530.728.839Zambia24.827.240Angola41.939.941Sierra Leone30.124.742Comoros26.929.725.843Central African Republic27.428.427.344Chad39.335.630.428.345Ethiopia42.238.634.546Eritrea–37.834.447Burundi31.637.1
12 Food and nutrition security situation in Africa cont’d The proportion of malnourished children under age 5 in Burkina Faso, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Sierra Leone and Somalia was between 17 per cent and 18 per cent, the highest for 201226% of malnourished children live in Africa & 4% in Latin America and the Caribbean.While the prevalence rates of stunted preschool children in Africa have reduced by 2.1% between 1990 and 2010, the absolute number of stunted pre-school children has actually increased by more than 14.5m, to 60m, between 1990 and projected to reach 64.2m in 2020.Ethiopia, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo account for 40% of all the stunted preschoolers in Africa; hence, any effort to reduce the level of chronic malnutrition on the continent must target these countries.
13 Food and nutrition security situation in Africa cont’d VAD impairs the immune system and contributes to the deaths of more than half a m African children annually.Across SSA, some 58m children consume less than the recommended amount of iodine.SSA has the highest prevalence of Iron deficiency anaemia among preschool-age children and both pregnant and non-pregnant women.SSA countries have the highest risk of zinc deficiency.(
14 Nutrition and national development As these challenges remain unsolved and the food security situation worsens, Africa’s achievement of some of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) hangs in the balance.The dynamic relationship between food insecurity and poor education, bad health and poverty can last generations, forming a vicious cycle that often propagates pervasive linkage.Malnourished mothers are at a greater risk of dying in childbirth and of delivering low-birth weight babies, who often fail to survive infancy. Undernourished babies who make it through infancy are often stunted, crippling and shortening their lives. As adults, they are likely to give birth to another generation of low-birth weight babies, perpetuating the vicious cycle of low human development and destitution (UNDP, 2012)
15 Nutrition and national development Lost productivity from under-nutrition in select African countries, 2009CountryStunted population of working age (15–64)Lost productivity in manual activitiesLost productivity in non-manual activitiesNumberEstimated prevalence (%)National currencyUSDEgypt20 million4010.7 billion EGP2 billion2.6 billion EGP483 millionEthiopia26 million6712.9 billion ETB1.1 billion616 million ETB52 millionSwaziland270,000126 million SZL15 million251 million SZL30 millionUganda8 million54366 billion UGX180 million218 billion UGX108 million
16 Nutrition and national development Nigeria can lose up to US$ 489,384,000 each year due to childhood malnutritionIn addition, such an individual becomes a social burden, reducing the contribution of others toward economic development. (Adapted from WB, Investing in Nutrition in Developing Countries)According to FAO, US$20-30 billion is what under-nutrition is estimated to cost economic development each year (FAO, 2012).
17 Nutrition and national development Summary of Projected Productivity Loss due to Stunting, Anemia & Iodine Deficiency and Gains as result of sustained investment in reducing them, (in million USD)
18 Nutrition and national development Good nutrition underpins progress towards each of the first six Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).Evidence suggests that good nutritional status reduces poverty by boosting productivity (Goal 1)Poverty reduction leads to improved educational outcomes (Goal 2)Dealing with malnutrition typically empowers women (Goal 3)Malnutrition is associated with over 50% of all child mortality & reversing the trend leads to reduction of mortality (Goal 4)Maternal malnutrition is a direct contributor to poor maternal health (Goal 5)Good nutrition status slows the onset of AIDS in HIV-positive individuals, increases malarial survival rates (Goal 6) and lowers the risk of diet-related chronic disease (www.unsystem.org)
19 Factors accounting for the current Food & Nutrition Situation in Africa 1. Poor and underdeveloped agriculture sectorWhile agriculture is the largest economic activity in Africa, contributing more than 50 per cent to GDP in most African countries, it is still unable to achieve food security for many of these countries.This is because the sector is underdeveloped.Many African farmers still use traditional, rudimentary methods, which often result in low yields (e.g. 15 vrs 40tons/ha of cassava)The sector is also characterized by primary and subsistence agriculture, as well as a lack of mechanization, limited use of farm inputs and limited value addition.Many African farmers are unable to invest in modern and profitable agriculture.Compounding this situation is the fact that agriculture depends heavily on weather and hurt by environment degradation.
20 Factors accounting for the current Food & Nutrition Situation in Africa 2. Unfavourable policies and poor institutionsAfrica’s ineffective policies have had a big impact on its agriculture and food security (Mwakini, 2008).In recent years, some African countries have shifted their focus from agriculture to other sectors as the panacea for development.However, agriculture employs and feeds most of the African population, so reducing funding to the sector leaves many Africans without viable livelihoods and food.In addition, some policies are not inclusive, favouring certain groups of people, regions or companies (Mwakini, 2008).
21 Factors accounting for the current Food & Nutrition Situation in Africa 3. Natural disasters, such as floods, famine and droughtIn recent years, the effects of climate change and environmental degradation have hit Africa hard, resulted in some of the worst disasters the continent has ever witnessed.In 2008 alone, Southern, East, Central and West Africa had recorded 96 disasters, including 44 floods and 9 droughts, which affected more than 16 million people (ACCES, 2010).The effects of such disasters are perhaps felt most by the agriculture sector.Heavy rains destroy crops, changing weather patterns affect planting, growing and harvesting seasons (and hence risk crop failure) and rising temperatures reduce crop yields.Consequently, people have been unable to engage in meaningful agricultural production, and food supply has been extremely limited.In Ethiopia, crop and livestock production fell 10 per cent over 2010–2011; in Kenya, at the peak of the drought in 2011, tea production fell 16 per cent and agriculture sector growth fell 5.7 per cent (World Bank, 2011).
22 Factors accounting for the current Food & Nutrition Situation in Africa 4. Rapidly increasing populationAfrica’s population grew from 186 million in 1950 to 856 million in 2010 (UNDP, 2012).And the rapid increase is only expected to continue. This has put pressure on the available food resources, and in the future it will likely lower the availability of food per capita.Rural areas, which have higher population growth rates and the poorest households, are the most affected by hunger and food shortages.In addition, rapid population growth has forced people to settle on agricultural land, hence reducing that land’s productivity and harvest.In essence, production is not rising fast enough to keep up with population growth .Meanwhile, many people, especially the youth, are shunning agriculture to seek other employment.
23 Efforts at increasing Food & Nutrition Security Universal Declaration of Human Rights:access to food as a right;and conventions, reaffirming “the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food,consistent with the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger.By African Governments’ agreement to these global commitments, together with their development partners have recognised that they have a duty to respect, protect, facilitate, and, if necessary, provide for the food and nutrition needs of all of the hungry and malnourished in Africa (http://www.un.org.).
24 Efforts at increasing Food & Nutrition Security CAADP estimates that 6 to 10 countries have reached or surpassed the 10 per cent target. Malawi has allocated more than 15 per cent of its national budget to agriculture for the last eight years.Individual donors are providing financial support through the CAADP Multi-Donor Trust Fund as well as bilateral support at the continental, regional and national levels.By June 2012, donors had committed about $50 million (of which $34.5 million had been disbursed).By July 2012, 11 countries had received $430 million from the programme (including Burundi, Ethiopia, Malawi, The Gambia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Tanzania and Togo) to implement CAADP-aligned agriculture and food security programmes
25 Efforts at increasing Food & Nutrition Security International Development Enterprises (iDE) has helped many rural poor people move out of subsistence poverty by improving poor rural farmers’ access to affordable micro-irrigation technologies and market opportunities.E.G. in Zambia, iDE has increased food security for 500 vulnerable small farm households affected by malnutrition—by using treadle pumps, drip irrigation and extension services to mitigate drought effects and increase food productionIn Sierra Leone, farmer field schools have equipped farmers with skills and knowledge, which in turn has improved their agricultural practices and increased their yields
26 Efforts at increasing Food & Nutrition Security AlgeriaSince 2000, the Algerian government has used the National Strategies for Food Security and Agriculture and Rural Development programme to improve the conditions of people living in rural areas, especially farmers.The interventions were mainly for infrastructure development, like developing irrigation schemes, increasing the water supply to rural areas and rural electrification.By 2009, the government had invested $22.5 billion to improve the water supply—in quality, quantity, preservation, purification and irrigation (FAO, 2009).In addition to improving water supply, the southern and Strepp regions have generated electricity through solar power.Farmers are also able to acquire equipment and inputs from the government.Algeria is making a lot of progress in food security because of such government support, especially in ensuring that farmers have the inputs they require.Algeria’s experience shows that government commitment to and leadership in agriculture is important for food security—and even more that rural development and extension services to rural farmers help improve their livelihoods.
27 Efforts at increasing Food & Nutrition Security Ethiopia: Holistic approach to food insecurity:In 2001, FAO launched a project in Southern Tigray and Northern Shoa, two of the country’s marginalized rural areas.The project used a cocktail of interventions in all the broad areas affecting food security to improve the situation: agriculture, health, education and water and sanitation, with a focus on women-headed households, which were more prone to malnutrition.The interventions included income-generating activities like farming poultry, beekeeping and vegetable growing; health promotion and disease prevention interventions like improving diets, educating communities on nutrition, producing and disseminating nutrition fact sheets and improving access to safe water and training centres on environmental conservation and rural skills.By 2006, the project had benefited more than 26,000 people directly and another 80,000 indirectly, nutrition patterns were improving and acute malnutrition had fallen from 13.4 per cent in 2003 to 9.5 per cent in 2005 (FAO, 2006).Ethiopia’s approach highlights the importance of covering all bases associated with food insecurity. A single approach would have addressed just one enabler of food insecurity. In addition, the focus on women-headed households contributed to concentrating on families most affected by food insecurity.
28 Potential of PA or Climate smart agric to Africa Food Security What is Precision Agriculture (PA)?PA is the application of technologies and principles to manage spatial and temporal variability associated with all aspects of agricultural production for improving production and environmental quality.The success in precision agriculture depends on the accurate assessment of the variability, its management and evaluation in space-time continuum in crop production.
29 Potential of PA or Climate smart agric to Africa Food Security The enabling technologies of precision agriculture can be grouped in to fine major categories: (i) Computers (ii)Global Positioning System (GPS) (iii)Geographic Information System (GIS) (iv) Remote Sensing (RS) and (v) Application control.It is a system of efficient use of resources, thus, applying input at the right time, in the right amount at the right place and in the right manner.Inputs such as: water, fertilizer, labor, pesticide, etc.
30 Potential of PA or Climate smart agric to Africa Food Security What is climate smart agricultural technologies?They are practices use to adapt and mitigate climate change with potential of increasing productivity.The technologies include the use of (i) drip or sprinkler irrigation (ii) cover cropping (iii) zero or minimum tillage (iv) alley farming (v) tied ridges, terraces or mounds (vi) high efficient use of fertilizer (vii) organic mulching (viii) organic manure
31 Potential of PA or Climate smart agric to Africa Food Security PotentialsDrip irrigation coupled with information from remotely sensed stress conditions increase the effective use of applied water there by reducing runoff and increasing deep percolation considerablyBy using precision leveling grain yield increased from 0.8ton/ac (with traditional leveling ) to 2.25 tons.Using micro-dosing fertilizer equipment there was an efficient use in fertilizer, 30kg fertilizer per hectare and there was tremendous improvement in productivity (a study done by ICRISAT, a CG center)
32 Potential of PA or Climate smart agric to Africa Food Security PotentialsPrecision agriculture makes agriculture more sustainable.Precision farming is designed to increase whole farm production efficiency with low cost effect while avoiding the unwanted effects of chemical loading to the environment.Why: The global population is expected to surpass 9 billion people by 2050, and food security challenges are at the forefront of every discussion regarding agricultural production.According to most estimates, food production will have to increase 50 to 70% to meet global demand.
33 Challenges of precision farming Small farm sizeLack of success storiesHeterogeneity of cropping systems and market imperfectionsLand ownership, infrastructure and institutional constraintsLack of local technical expertiseHigh illiteracy rate among farmers
34 Way forward to improving African’s Food Security African governments should increase investment in agriculture (Malabo Declaration).Developing more irrigation schemes: large andsmall scale as done by Algerian govt.Building farmers capacities in climate smart agricProvision of effective extension services thus transferring information to farmers through the use of cell-phones andInvesting in PA tools (GPS, GIS & Remote sensing) in at some selected agricultural stations
35 Way forward to improving African’s Food Security Develop and transfer decision-support tools for sustainable production of key food security crops (rice, maize, legumes, yam or cassava)Facilitate formation and strengthening of farmer cooperatives to help with technology dissemination and adoptionOrganize farmer field schools to help equip farmers with skills and knowledge, especially, in climate smart agricultureDevelop standardize guidelines for land leasing