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GROUP VII The Halogens National 5 Chemistry KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING.

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Presentation on theme: "GROUP VII The Halogens National 5 Chemistry KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING."— Presentation transcript:

1 GROUP VII The Halogens National 5 Chemistry KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

2 GROUP VII INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected National 5 Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the SQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board. Additional Powerpoints, and the full range of Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at... All diagrams and animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any commercial work.

3 CONTENTS CONTENTS Introduction Group trends Group similarities Reaction with metals Displacement reactions Summary Quick quiz GROUP VII

4 INTRODUCTION F ClCl Br I At THE HALOGENS OCCUR IN GROUP VII OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Group

5 INTRODUCTION F ClCl Br I At THE HALOGENS OCCUR IN GROUP VII OF THE PERIODIC TABLE THEY ARE NON-METALS AND HAVE ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS JUST ONE ELECTRON SHORT OF THE NEAREST NOBLE GAS Group

6 GROUP PROPERTIES GENERAL non-metals exist as separate diatomic molecules… eg C l 2 have seven electrons in their outer shells form negative ions with a 1- charge reaction with metals and halides

7 GROUP PROPERTIES GENERAL non-metals exist as separate diatomic molecules… eg C l 2 have seven electrons in their outer shells form negative ions with a 1- charge reaction with metals and halides TRENDS appearance boiling point electronic configuration atomic size ionic size reactivity

8 GROUP TRENDS

9 F2F2 Yellow Cl2Cl2 Green Br 2 Red/brown I2I2 Grey GAS LIQUIDSOLID Colour State (at RTP) APPEARANCE YellowGreenRed/brownPurpleVapour colour

10 GROUP TRENDS INCREASES down Group because more energy is required to separate the larger molecules. F2F2 Yellow Cl2Cl2 Green Br 2 Red/brown I2I2 Grey GAS LIQUIDSOLID Colour State (at RTP) APPEARANCE BOILING POINT F2F Cl2Cl Br 2 58 I2I2 183Boiling point / ° C YellowGreenRed/brownPurpleVapour colour

11 GROUP TRENDS electrons go into shells further from the nucleus FClCl BrI 2,72,8,72,8,18,72,8,18,18,7Configuration ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION Atomic Number

12 GROUP TRENDS FClCl BrI ATOMIC & IONIC RADIUS Atomic radius / nm NOT TO SCALE

13 GROUP TRENDS ATOMIC RADIUSINCREASES down Group IONIC RADIUS INCREASES down Group the greater the atomic number the more electrons there are these go into shells increasingly further from the nucleus ions are larger than atoms - the added electron repels the others so radius gets larger FClCl BrI ATOMIC & IONIC RADIUS Atomic radius / nm F¯F¯Cl¯Cl¯Br¯I¯I¯ Ionic radius / nm

14 GROUP SIMILARITIES

15 all the atoms have seven electrons in their outer shell ions are larger than atoms - the added electron repels the others so radius gets larger ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION FClCl BrI 2,72,8,72,8,18,72,8,18,18,7Configuration Atomic Number

16 GROUP SIMILARITIES MOLECULAR FORMULA FClCl BrI Covalent Bonding F2F2 Cl 2 Br 2 I2I2 Molecular formula NOT TO SCALE all exist as diatomic molecules

17 GROUP SIMILARITIES ION FORMATION FClCl BrI Configuration IonF¯F¯Cl¯Cl¯Br¯I¯I¯ 2,82,8,82,8,18,82,8,18,18,8 all gain one electron to form a negative ion of charge 1- ions are larger than atoms the smaller the atom the easier it forms an ion

18 GROUP SIMILARITIES ION FORMATION FClCl BrI Configuration IonF¯F¯Cl¯Cl¯Br¯I¯I¯ 2,82,8,82,8,18,82,8,18,18,8 all gain one electron to form a negative ion of charge 1- ions are larger than atoms the smaller the atom the easier it forms an ion REACTIVITY FClCl BrI Reactivity Increasingly reactive reactivity decreases down the Group / increases up the Group

19 REACTIONS OF HALOGENS 1. WITH METALS 2. WITH HALIDES

20 REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS

21 HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES.

22 REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES. THE EASE OF REACTION DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP F > C l > Br > I

23 REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES. THE EASE OF REACTION DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP F > C l > Br > I THIS IS BECAUSE ‘THE LARGER THE HALOGEN ATOM, THE LESS EASILY IT ATTRACTS THE ELECTRON IT NEEDS TO FILL ITS OUTER SHELL’

24 REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES. THE EASE OF REACTION DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP F > C l > Br > I THIS IS BECAUSE ‘THE LARGER THE HALOGEN ATOM, THE LESS EASILY IT ATTRACTS THE ELECTRON IT NEEDS TO FILL ITS OUTER SHELL’ THE HALIDES OF GROUP I ARE…WHITE IONIC SOLIDS VERY SOLUBLE IN WATER SODIUM CHLORIDE (NaC l ) IS A TYPICAL GROUP I HALIDE

25 REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS

26 REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE +

27 REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations Na + Cl 2 NaC l SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE

28 REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations Na + Cl 2 NaC l SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE The equation doesn’t balance - multiply the formulae until it does

29 REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations 2Na + C l 2 2NaC l Na + C l 2 NaC l SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE Balanced equation

30 ClCl SODIUM ATOM 2,8,1 Na CHLORINE ATOM 2,8,7 11 protons; 11 electrons17 protons; 17 electrons SODIUM CHLORIDE FORMATION

31 ClCl SODIUM ION 2,8 Na CHLORIDE ION 2,8,8 both species now have ‘full’ outer shells; ie they have the electronic configuration of a noble gas + 11 protons; 10 electrons17 protons; 18 electrons SODIUM CHLORIDE FORMATION

32 ClCl SODIUM ION 2,8 Na CHLORIDE ION 2,8,8 NaNa + + e¯ 2,8,1 2,8 ELECTRON TRANSFERRED C l + e¯ C l ¯ 2,8,7 2,8,8 + SODIUM CHLORIDE FORMATION

33 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

34 HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

35 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED THIS DECREASE IN REACTIVITY DOWN THE GROUP CAN BE DEMONSTRATED USING DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS... A DISPLACEMENT REACTION IS WHERE ONE SPECIES TAKES THE PLACE OF ANOTHER IN A COMPOUND.

36 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM IODIDE SOLUTION Colourless CHLORINE WATER Pale green BROMINE WATER Orange A SOLUTION OF THE HALOGEN IS ADDED TO A SOLUTION OF A HALIDE HALIDES ARE SALTS FORMED BETWEEN ELEMENTS AND HALOGENS

37 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SODIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM IODIDE SOLUTION Colourless CHLORINE WATER Pale green BROMINE WATER Orange SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION Colourless NO VISIBLE REACTION Experiment 1

38 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM IODIDE SOLUTION Colourless BROMINE WATER Orange CHLORINE WATER Pale green SODIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION Colourless BROMINE produced Experiment 2

39 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION Colourless BROMINE WATER Orange CHLORINE WATER Pale green SODIUM IODIDE SOLUTION Colourless IODINE produced Experiment 3

40 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SODIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM IODIDE SOLUTION Colourless CHLORINE WATER Pale green BROMINE WATER Orange SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION Colourless NO VISIBLE REACTION Experiment 4

41 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM IODIDE SOLUTION Colourless CHLORINE WATER Pale green BROMINE WATER Orange SODIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION Colourless NO VISIBLE REACTION Experiment 5

42 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION Colourless SODIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION Colourless CHLORINE WATER Pale green BROMINE WATER Orange SODIUM IODIDE SOLUTION Colourless IODINE produced Experiment 6

43 SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE SODIUM BROMIDESODIUM IODIDE Solution stays colourless NO REACTION Solution goes from colourless to orange- yellow NO REACTION Solution goes from colourless to orange- yellow BROMINE FORMED Solution goes from colourless to orange- yellow NO REACTION Solution goes from colourless to red IODINE FORMED BROMINE Solution goes from colourless to orange- red IODINE FORMED DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS The colour change in Experiments 4 and 5 is due to dilution – there is no reaction

44 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS

45 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS

46 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS C l 2 (aq) + NaBr (aq) —> Br 2 (aq) + NaC l (aq) The equation doesn’t balance - multiply the formulae until it does

47 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS C l 2 (aq) + 2NaBr (aq) —> Br 2 (aq) + 2NaC l (aq) C l 2 (aq) + NaBr (aq) —> Br 2 (aq) + NaC l (aq)

48 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS C l 2 (aq) + 2Br¯ (aq) —> Br 2 (aq) + 2C l ¯ (aq) C l 2 (aq) + 2NaBr (aq) —> Br 2 (aq) + 2NaC l (aq) IONIC EQUATION

49 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS C l 2 (aq) + 2I¯ (aq) —> I 2 (aq) + 2C l ¯ (aq) C l 2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq) —> I 2 (aq) + 2NaC l (aq) IONIC EQUATION

50 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS Br 2 (aq) + 2I¯ (aq) —> I 2 (aq) + 2Br¯ (aq) Br 2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq) —> I 2 (aq) + 2NaBr (aq) IONIC EQUATION

51 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE THIS SHOWS THATA MORE REACTIVE HALOGEN WILL DISPLACE A LESS REACTIVE ONE FROM AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF ITS SALT DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS SUMMARY

52 CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE THIS SHOWS THATA MORE REACTIVE HALOGEN WILL DISPLACE A LESS REACTIVE ONE FROM AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF ITS SALT HOWEVER, THIS REACTION DOES NOT TAKE PLACE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE (Bromine is below chlorine in the Group so is less reactive) DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EQUATIONS

53 PRESS THE SPACE BAR TO SEE WHAT HAPPENS DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EXPLANATION 17+ CHLORINE ATOM 17 PROTONS 17 ELECTRONS 2,8,7 35+ BROMIDE ION 35 PROTONS 36 ELECTRONS 2,8,18,8 THE CHLORINE ATOM PULLS AN ELECTRON OUT OF THE OUTER SHELL OF THE BROMIDE ION – THE CHLORINE ATOM BECOMES A CHLORIDE ION AND THE BROMIDE ION BECOMES A BROMINE ATOM.

54 BECAUSE BROMINE ATOMS ARE LARGER THAN CHLORINE ATOMS, IT IS EASIER TO PULL ONE OF THEIR OUTER SHELL ELECTRONS OUT. CHLORINE NOW HAS THE OUTER SHELL ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF A NOBLE GAS. DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS EXPLANATION CHLORINE ATOM 17 PROTONS 17 ELECTRONS BROMIDE ION 35 PROTONS 36 ELECTRONS CHLORIDE ION 17 PROTONS 18 ELECTRONS BROMINE ATOM 35 PROTONS 35 ELECTRONS

55 SYMBOL MOLECULAR FORMULA APPEARANCE STATE (room temp) F PALE YELLOW GAS ClCl FLUORINE IODINE ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION BOILING POINT 2,7 INCREASES 2,8,7 GAS ION (electronic config) F¯ 2,8 C l ¯ 2,8,8 REACTION WITH SODIUM LESS REACTIVE PRODUCT OF REACTION WITH SODIUM SODIUM FLUORIDE (NaF) SODIUM CHLORIDE (NaC l ) PALE GREEN Br I BROMINECHLORINE F2F2 Cl2Cl2 Br 2 I2I2 RED-BROWN GREY-BLACK LIQUIDSOLID 2,8,18,72,8,18,18,7 Br¯ 2,8,18,8 I¯ 2,8,18,18,8 SODIUM BROMIDE (NaBr) SODIUM IODIDE (NaI) GROUP VII - SUMMARY COLOUR OF VAPOUR PALE YELLOW GREENRED-BROWNPURPLE

56 QUICK QUIZ 1.ELEMENTS IN GROUP 7 ARE KNOWN AS THE ……… 2.WHAT ARE THE NAMES OF THE ELEMENTS 3.HOW DOES THE ATOMIC NUMBER CHANGE DOWN THE GROUP? 4.HOW DOES THE ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION CHANGE? 5.HOW DOES THE ATOMIC SIZE (RADIUS) CHANGE? 6.HOW MANY ELECTRONS DO THEY HAVE IN THE OUTER LEVEL? 7.ARE THEY METALS OR NON-METALS? 8.WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR COLOUR DOWN THE GROUP? 9.DO THEY GO AROUND IN PAIRS OR AS MONATOMIC GASES? 10.WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR STATE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE? 11.WHAT TYPE OF COMPOUNDS DO THEY FORM WITH METALS? 12.HOW CAN EXPLAIN THEIR RELATIVE REACTIVITY IN TERMS OF THE ATOMIC STRUCTURE?

57 QUICK QUIZ - ANSWERS 1.HALOGENS. 2.FLUORINE, CHLORINE, BROMINE, IODINE, ASTATINE. 3.ATOMIC NUMBER INCREASES DOWN THE GROUP. 4.GET MORE SHELLS DOWN THE GROUP. 5.ATOMIC SIZE INCREASES DOWN THE GROUP. 6.THEY ALL HAVE SEVEN ELECTRONS IN THE OUTER LEVEL. 7.THEY ARE NON-METALS. 8.COLOUR DARKENS DOWN THE GROUP. 9.ATOMS GO AROUND IN PAIRS OR AS DIATOMIC GASES. 10.GO FROM GAS TO SOLID DOWN THE GROUP. 11.THEY FORM IONIC COMPOUNDS WITH METALS. 12.THE LARGER THEY ARE THE LESS EASILY ELECTRONS ARE GAINED AND THE LESS REACTIVE THEY BECOME.

58 GROUP VII The Halogens THE END © 2011 KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING & JONATHAN HOPTON


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