BACTERIA These are seen almost at every places. These are the simplest kind among the leaving beings. Their size is in between 0.2 to 100 micron. These are of four shapes. 1-Cocus (golakara) 2-Bacilus (kathi) 3-Spirilum (kundalakara) 4-Kamakara.
STRUCTURE These are single cell bodies. It has a strong cell wall. It has nuclear reticulum (nyastika jali) instead of membrane bound reticulum (jhilliyukta nyasti). Membrane bound organels are not seen inside the cell.
NUTRITION Bacterias are parasite (parajibi) or saprophite (mrutopajivi). Some are aerobic(bayu upajivi) while others are anaerobic.
GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION Bacteria's increase their number in rapid speed in a hot and wet environment. One cell divides into two in a suitable environment. The growth of those two different cells takes place and they again divided into two. This process takes place in such a speed that these are created in crores. These cant reproduct in very hot or cold environment.
ECONOMIC-IMPIORTANCE It helps in decomposition of dead bodies of animals. RIZOBIUM helps in biological fixation. Lactobacilous turns milk into curd and cheese. Acetobacter turns fruit juice to vinegar. Clostridium makes aceton. Antibiotics like streptocyclin, chloromycetin poly-mixing etc are prepared out of some bacteria's. Ischiria coli helps in digestion of straw inside the stomach of cow. It helps in curing of tea leaf and tanning of animal skin.
DISEASE OCCURRED BY BACTERIA Diarrhoea - vibrio cholerae Typhoid - salmonella typhi Pneumonia - diplococus Leaf blign of rice - xanthomonas Jadura disease of lemon - xanthomonas Jhanuala disease of brinjal - pseudo monas
ALGAE(SAIBALA) These are simplest kind of plants. These grow in ponds rivers and sea. Some grow on wet land, snow, stone and scales of trees. These are of single or multiple cell. Their size varies from 1micron to 40 meters. These are also of different shapes like cocus, chakrakar, basilus, fitapari.
TYPES OF ALGAE These are mainly of 4 types. Blue-green algae(nilaharit saibala). Green algae(harit). Red algae(lal algae). DIATOMS are another kind of single cell algae. Example of some diatoms are CYMBELLA,TABELARIA, NAVIKULA.
Economic importance ULVA and LAMINARIA are used as food in chin and zapan. ALGAE is the main food of fish and scrap. AGARAGAR that is used in the preparation of icecreame and medicine is derived from Gracilaria. Large amount of iodin and Potassium is derived from FEUCUS and LAMINARIA. NUSTUC and ANABENA are used in binding atmospheric nitrogen. So these are grow infields. CHLORELA and KLIMAIDOMONAS are used in purifing dirty water. Dead cells of DIATOMS that contain cilica are used in washing metals, tooth powder, glass and porcelin. Microcystis makes water poisonous.
FUNGI(KABAKA) TYPES OF FUNGI YEAST, MILDEW, MOULDS(PHIMPI), MUSHROOM(CHATU).
REPRODUCCTION YEAST reproduces in the process of budding(KALIKANA). MILDEW(SWETAKA), MOULDS(PHIMPI) and mushroom reproduce by the help of spore(renu). Spores are rounded and single cell bodies.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE YEAST helps in the preparation of bread. BEAR is prepared out of grape juice by yeast. Different types of mushrooms are used as food. An antibiotic called pencilin is prepared from a mould know as pencillium. Some vitamins are prepared from YEAST. Fungies also decompose remainings of animals. Fungis destroy foods. It, also destroys clothes, wood and leather. Late blight of potato, rust of wheat are caused by fungis. Different skin diseases of man are cause by it.
PROTOZOA(ADIPRANI) These are single cell animals. These live on earth and water.Even in the body of man. Examples of some protozoa are GIADIA, PARAMECIUM, AMOEBA etc.
AMOEBA It is the simplest kind among the protozoa. It has no particular shape. It looks like Jelly. It is locomotive with the help of pseudopodia by changing its shape. With the help of pseudopodia it intakes food.
PARAMECIUM Its shape is like a shoe. It is totally covered by cilia.These cilias help it in locomotion and fetching food. Protozoas reproduce by fission (bikhandan) and sporulation (renubhaban). IT eats algae and bacteria,but higher animals eat them. Malaria parasite causes malaria. Giardia and antamoeba causes disecentry.
VIRUS(VUTANU) These are the smallest one among the micro-organisms. Their size varies from micron to 0.2micron. They are of different sizes; dandakara, round shaped, multifaceted. These are named according to their host(posaka) or name of the disease that they create. Different types of virus transmit through different mediums like water, sneeze, air, etc. Tobacco mosaic virus creates mosaic disease on tobacco leaf. Bacteriophage are virus that grows on the cell of bacteria. It has a multifaced head with a long tail. These look like a tadpole. Foot and Mouth Disease of Cattle(fatua roga) is created by virus.