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Voluntary Training Program 2012 Climate change and shipping.

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Presentation on theme: "Voluntary Training Program 2012 Climate change and shipping."— Presentation transcript:

1 Voluntary Training Program 2012 Climate change and shipping

2 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Outline  The greenhouse effect and the Earth’s climate system  The …human element in climate: Emissions of greenhouse gases  How is climate changing?  Impacts  Climate change and the Mediterranean  Regulations on the energy efficiency of ships

3 Marine Environmental Awareness Course The greenhouse effect and the Earth’s climate system

4 Marine Environmental Awareness Course All components of the earth system are heated by the absorbed energy and emit part of it as long-wave (infrared) radiation. Trace gases in the earth’s atmosphere (greenhouse gases) re-absorb most of the outgoing infrared radiation and sent it back to earth. About 30% of the incoming solar radiation is directly reflected by the atmosphere (clouds, dust particles, aerosols) and the earth surface The greenhouse effect The rest 70% is absorbed by the atmosphere, oceans and land Natural GHGs Carbon Dioxide CO 2 Methane CH 4 Nitrous Oxide N 2 O Water Vapour H 2 O

5 Marine Environmental Awareness Course The greenhouse effect: too much of a good thing… The Earth thanks to the greenhouse effect Average temperature 14 o C The Earth with enhanced greenhouse effect Average temperature >14.5 o C (so far…) Average temperature -18 o C The Earth without the greenhouse effect

6 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Global distribution of solar energy input Mean annual global insolation

7 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Redistributing heat throughout the globe: the global ocean conveyor belt…

8 Marine Environmental Awareness Course The Earth’s climate system components

9 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Climate changes constantly over various timescales due to natural variability … Temperature change from present, o C Source: NOAA

10 Marine Environmental Awareness Course The …human element in climate: Emissions of greenhouse gases

11 Marine Environmental Awareness Course

12 Greenhouse gases Concentration (1750) Concentration (2009) Increase Warming potential RF Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) 280 ppm386.8 ppm38%163.6% Methane (CH 4 )700 ppb1803 ppb158%2118.1% Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O)270 ppb322.5 ppb19%3106.3% F-gases (CFCs,HFCs,SF 6 ) -900 ppt % Human-induced increases in GHGs Source: World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

13 Marine Environmental Awareness Course CO 2 (ppm) Greenhouse gases Concentration (1750) Concentration (2009) Increase Warming potential RF Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) 280 ppm386.8 ppm38%163.6% Methane (CH 4 )700 ppb1803 ppb158%2118.1% Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O)270 ppb322.5 ppb19%3106.3% F-gases (CFCs,HFCs,SF 6 ) -900 ppt % Source: World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Human-induced increases in GHGs

14 Marine Environmental Awareness Course CH 4 (ppb) Greenhouse gases Concentration (1750) Concentration (2009) Increase Warming potential RF Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) 280 ppm386.8 ppm38%163.6% Methane (CH 4 )700 ppb1803 ppb158%2118.1% Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O)270 ppb322.5 ppb19%3106.3% F-gases (CFCs,HFCs,SF 6 ) -900 ppt % Source: World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Human-induced increases in GHGs

15 Marine Environmental Awareness Course N 2 O (ppb) Greenhouse gases Concentration (1750) Concentration (2009) Increase Warming potential RF Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) 280 ppm386.8 ppm38%163.6% Methane (CH 4 )700 ppb1803 ppb158%2118.1% Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O)270 ppb322.5 ppb19%3106.3% F-gases (CFCs,HFCs,SF 6 ) -900 ppt % Source: World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Human-induced increases in GHGs

16 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Source: World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Greenhouse gases Concentration (1750) Concentration (2009) Increase Warming potential RF Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) 280 ppm386.8 ppm38%163.6% Methane (CH 4 )700 ppb1803 ppb158%2118.1% Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O)270 ppb322.5 ppb19%3106.3% F-gases (CFCs,HFCs,SF 6 ) -900 ppt % Source: World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Human-induced increases in GHGs

17 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Model simulations show clearly that temperature increase since 1950 is induced by human activities The human element…

18 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Sources of CO 2 emissions 74% (thousands tones) 26% (thousands tones) Power production, industrial activities, transports Changes in land use, deforestation, urbanization

19 Marine Environmental Awareness Course CO 2 emissions per sector (2007) Source: Second IMO GHG Study million tones

20 Marine Environmental Awareness Course How is climate changing?

21 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Source: NOAA

22 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Global warming…

23 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Melting of glaciers, retreat of sea ice and sea level rise… Alaska, Muir Glacier 13 August August 2004

24 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Melting of glaciers, retreat of sea ice and sea level rise…

25 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Melting of glaciers, retreat of sea ice and sea level rise…

26 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Melting of glaciers, retreat of sea ice and sea level rise…

27 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Melting of glaciers, retreat of sea ice and sea level rise…

28 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Changes in rainfall patterns…

29 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Increased frequency of extreme weather events

30 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Impacts

31 Marine Environmental Awareness Course

32 Marine environment and climate change  Warming (up to 3000 m depth)  Changes in salinity  Disturbance of ocean currents (conveyor belt) Blue bars: change between 1961 – 2003 Red bars: change between Source: IPCC

33 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Marine environment and climate change  Warming (up to 3000 m depth)  Changes in salinity  Disturbance of ocean currents (conveyor belt)  Acidification

34 Marine Environmental Awareness Course CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3  H + + HCO 3 - H + + CO 3 2-  HCO 3 - CaCO 3  Ca 2+ + CO 3 2- Marine environment and climate change

35 Marine Environmental Awareness Course  Habitat losses Marine environment and climate change  Coral bleaching  Changes in the life cycle and distribution of many species, increased risk of species invasions, biodiversity losses

36 Marine Environmental Awareness Course  Changes in wind conditions, average wave height, sea ice coverage, sea level etc. have serious implications for shipping and related infrastructure. Marine environment and climate change

37 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Focus on the Mediterranean

38 Marine Environmental Awareness Course  As a general trend, over the last decades Mediterranean climate has become progressively hotter and drier Average summer temperature has increased up to 3 ο C Average winter precipitation has decreased by 20%

39 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Droughts, summer heat waves and fires have increased both in frequency and intensity and are expected to worsen in the near future, resulting in widespread desertification of the area  As a general trend, over the last decades Mediterranean climate has become progressively hotter and drier

40 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Lack of freshwater, especially during the summer period, is a major threat for an area representing less than 3% of the global freshwater reservoir and hosting 50% of the global population already suffering from limited access to water resources.  As a general trend, over the last decades Mediterranean climate has become progressively hotter and drier

41 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Meditteranean sea is getting warmer: surface temperatures have increased 0.8 – 1.4 o C and deep water (>250 m) has become 0.12 o C warmer. Changes in circulation are already observed  As a general trend, over the last decades Mediterranean climate has become progressively hotter and drier

42 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Water resources at stake…

43 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Warming of sea water favors and accelerates the migration and expansion of introduced species of tropical origin (>600 in the Eastern Mediterranean) northwards and westwards  As a general trend, over the last decades Mediterranean climate has become progressively hotter and drier

44 Marine Environmental Awareness Course A glimpse to the future… Climate system is complex… Human society is even more complex… Naturally, projections of future climate change show huge deviations

45 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Regulations on the energy efficiency of ships

46 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Shipping is by far the most energy efficient mode of transport… Source: Second IMO GHG Study 2009

47 Marine Environmental Awareness Course But there is still great potential (and need) for improvement… World seaborne trade (billion tonne miles)

48 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Regulations on energy efficiency of ships (new chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI) are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2013 Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) new ships over 400 GRT all ships over 400 GRT

49 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Energy efficiency design index (EEDI) (grams CO 2 / capacity * nautical mile)

50 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Energy efficiency design index (EEDI)

51 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Indicative baseline for a certain ship type Required reduction (x%) 10% reduction for ships built between 2015 – % reduction for ships built between 2020 – % reduction for ships built after 2025 Energy efficiency design index (EEDI)

52 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) Self – evaluation & improvement Monitoring Implementation Planning

53 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) Self – evaluation & improvement Monitoring Implementation Planning Improved voyage planning Weather routing Just in time Speed optimization Optimized shaft power Optimum trim Optimum ballast Optimum propeller and propeller inflow Hull maintenance Propulsion system maintenance Improved fleet management and energy management Some possible practices for fuel-efficient operation of ships Resolution MEPC.213(63)

54 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) Self – evaluation & improvement Monitoring Implementation Planning Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI)

55 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) Self – evaluation & improvement Monitoring Implementation Planning Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) Actual fuel consumption x C carbon (g CO 2 / g fuel) Actual cargo transported x distance travelled ΕΕΟΙ =

56 Marine Environmental Awareness Course Thank you for your attention! Questions


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