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Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context John Scott  Patricia Bittner Center for Public Service Communications “Empowering competent.

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Presentation on theme: "Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context John Scott  Patricia Bittner Center for Public Service Communications “Empowering competent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context John Scott  Patricia Bittner Center for Public Service Communications “Empowering competent enthusiastic people to do good things”

2 Center for Public Service Communications 2 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012 Good Afternoon! Agenda for the next two days Using the ‘chat’ function Background material and references in the Moodle classroom at: http://mla.mrooms.org/course/view.php?id=48 This project is funded by a contract with the Disaster Information Management Research Center, Specialized Information Services Division, National Library of Medicine.

3 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 3 Moodle Site for this Course

4 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 4 Objectives Increase awareness of disaster risk reduction (DRR) and disaster risk management (DRM) practices in ‘international’ (a.k.a. ‘other national’ and ‘multinational’) disasters and public health crises. Increase awareness of the breadth of the field and the variety of ‘constituents’ you may have.

5 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 5 Our Assumptions about the Participants –You are a librarian or an information professional –You are part of an academic health center, private/not-for-profit hospital/medical facility, local or state government health department, NGO, etc. –Your constituents may be administrators, public health or medical professionals, academics or the public.

6 Day 1 6 September 2012

7 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 7 What’s the Most Common Type of Disaster? There is more than one correct answer…

8 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 8 The difference between a disaster and an emergency…

9 9 Center for Public Service CommunicationsDisasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012 The Ability to Respond Makes the Difference EMERGENCY Local resources are sufficient to manage the crisis DISASTER The crisis exceeds the local capacity to respond

10 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 10 Importance of Defining Terms

11 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 11 ReliefWeb Glossary of Humanitarian Terms Find these publications in the Moodle classroom under General Information.

12 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 12 Some Definitions

13 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 13 An overly simplistic history of tipping points in ‘disaster management’ 1 “The Old Days” (c. 1970): National Security/Emergency Preparedness -- focus on preparedness for nuclear events and “big ones”; earthquakes and hurricanes 1984: Chemical explosion in Bhopal, India 1986: Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine and the US 1979 Three Mile Island 1990 - 2000: International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) 1990: AT&T long distance network crash in the U.S

14 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 14 An overly simplistic history of tipping points in ‘disaster management’ 2 1991: Break up of the Soviet Union 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment & Development (“Rio”) 1993: Somalia (and former Yugoslavia, Rwanda in similar timeframe) 2001: “9/11” c. 2005 Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

15 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 15 Other Types of Health Emergencies? PHEIC: Public Health Emergency of International Concern http://www.who.int/whr/2007/ media_centre/07_chap5_fig0 1_en.pdf Immediate global action is needed to provide a public health response to prevent or control the international spread of disease.

16 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 16 Common Problems in Most Disasters 1 Water supply and sanitation Communicable diseases Mental health

17 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 17 Common Problems in Most Disasters 2 Damage to health infrastructure Food and nutrition Population displacement to water and sewage systems

18 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 18 Moodle Site for this Course

19 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 19 Health Impact of Selected Natural Hazards

20 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 20 Who’s Who in Emergencies and Disasters U.N. Agencies World Health Organization (WHO)www.who.intwww.who.int Pan American Health Org. (PAHO)www.paho.org/disasterswww.paho.org/disasters World Meteorological Org. (WMO)www.wmo.orgwww.wmo.org Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)www.unocha.orgwww.unocha.org U.N. Development Program (UNDP)www.undp.orgwww.undp.org UN Children’s Program (UNICEF)www.unicef.org/www.unicef.org/ World Food Program (WFP)www.wfp.org/www.wfp.org/ UN High Commissioner for Refugeeswww.unhcr.orgwww.unhcr.org UN Environment Program (UNEP)www.unep.orgwww.unep.org Int’l Telecommunications Union (ITU)www.itu.orgwww.itu.org

21 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 21 World Health Organization

22 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 22 Pan American Health Organization

23 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 23 Example: Tropical Storm Isaac

24 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 24 UNDP

25 Center for Public Service Communications 25 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012 Other International Partners IFRC www.ifrc.orgwww.ifrc.org ICRC www.icrc.orgwww.icrc.org IOM www.iom.intwww.iom.int MSF www.msf.orgwww.msf.org Handicap International www.handicap- international.us www.handicap- international.us OFDA (U.S.) CIDA (Canada) SIDA (Sweden) EU-ECHO Japan World Bank Regional Banks Foundations

26 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 26 IFRC

27 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 27 More on Who’s Doing What in Disasters

28 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 28 Interaction 1

29 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 29 Interaction 2

30 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 30 Interaction 3

31 Center for Public Service Communications 31 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012 Follow these Agencies on Social Media NLM DIMRC: http://twitter.com/NLM_DIMRC http://twitter.com/NLM_DIMRC USAID - http://twitter.com/theOFDAhttp://twitter.com/theOFDA PAHO Disasters: http://twitter.com/PAHOdisasters http://twitter.com/PAHOdisasters WHO/PAHO EOC: http://twitter.com/pahoeoc http://twitter.com/pahoeoc ReliefWeb: http://twitter.com/reliefwebhttp://twitter.com/reliefweb USGS: http://twitter.com/usgshttp://twitter.com/usgs NOAA: http://twitter.com/NOAAhttp://twitter.com/NOAA Natural Hazards Center – http://twitter.com/HazCenter http://twitter.com/HazCenter CDC Emergency: http://www.facebook.com/cdcemergency http://www.facebook.com/cdcemergency IFRC: http://www.facebook.com/pages/IFRC- IDRL-Programme/197688860525 http://www.facebook.com/pages/IFRC- IDRL-Programme/197688860525 PAHO Disasters: http://www.facebook.com/PAHOdisasters http://www.facebook.com/PAHOdisasters UNOCHA: http://www.facebook.com/UNOCHA http://www.facebook.com/UNOCHA Doctors without Borders: http://www.facebook.com/msf.english http://www.facebook.com/msf.english

32 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 32 Good Sources of General Information Natural Disasters: Protecting the Public’s Health. Pan American Health Organization. http://paho.org/disasters/http://paho.org/disasters/ NLM Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health http://disasterlit.nlm.nih.gov/ http://disasterlit.nlm.nih.gov/ Health, Disasters and Risk. UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/3816 http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/3816 Technical Guidance. World Health Organization http://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/en/index.html http://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/en/index.html Prehospital and Disaster Medicine (Journal of the World Association of Disaster Medicine) http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/ Health and Safety Concerns for all Disasters. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/alldisasters.asphttp://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/alldisasters.asp Disaster Risk Reduction and Response at the International Level: Global Trends in a Changing Environment

33 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 33 2004 Southeast Asia Tsunami A “Tipping Point” The earthquake that triggered the Indian Ocean tsunamis on 24 December 2004 was the world's largest natural disaster in 40 years. It led to destructive tsunamis that left approximately 227,000 people dead, missing and assumed dead. Fourteen countries were affected, with Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand the hardest hit in terms of loss of life.

34 34 Center for Public Service CommunicationsDisasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012 Members of the Tsunami Evaluation Coalition UN Agencies FAO OCHA UNDP UNFPA UNICEF WFP WHO Research Networks ALNAP DARA Int’l Feinstein Int’l Famine Center Groupe URD HPG/ODI ICMH (Migration & Health) Donors AusAid (Australia) BMZ (Germany) CIDA (Canada) Danida (Denmark) DfA (Ireland) DfiD (UK) IOB/MFA (Net‘lands) JICA & MoFA (Japan) MFA (France) MFA (Luxembourg) NORAD (Norway) NZAid (New Zealand) SDC (Switzerland) SIDA (Sweden) USAID (United States) NGOs and RC ActionAid Int’l AIDMI (India) CAFOD CARE Int’l UK Cordaid IFRC Oxfam GB RedR Save the Children (UK) Tearfund UK World Vision Int’l World Vision Canada

35 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 35 TEC Findings Poor coordination due to: –Proliferation of agencies (all types) –Funding fueled competition –Lack of NGO field representation mechanisms –Poor coordination skills Aid was supply-driven, resulting in inappropriate aid in some cases.

36 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 36 OneResponse: Cluster Approach A Paradigm Shift The Cluster Approach aims to strengthen overall response capacity and effectiveness of the response http://oneresponse.info/GlobalClusters/health/Pages/default.aspx Ensure sufficient global capacities maintained in all main sectors/areas. Ensure predictable leadership based on agreed standards and guidelines (Cluster leads also act as the “provider of last resort”). The concept of partnerships/clusters (avoiding situations were governments have to deal with hundreds of uncoordinated international actors). Strengthens accountability (IASC Generic Terms of Reference for Sector/Cluster Leads at the Country Level). Improve strategic field-level coordination.

37 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 37 Health Cluster Functions at the Country Level Formulating strategies and plans in collaboration with Ministry of Health and UN agencies Monitoring health trends, activities and outcomes Joint decisions and follow-up Collation, preparation and dissemination of health information Resource mapping (Who, What, Where) Response to needs / gaps Advocacy and resource mobilization Inter-cluster linkages

38 Center for Public Service Communications 38 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012 Cluster System in Haiti Agriculture Camp Coordination/ Management Early Recovery Education Emergency Telecommunications Food Health Health Cluster Surveys Logistics Nutrition Protection Shelter and Non-food Items Water and Sanitation

39 39 Center for Public Service CommunicationsDisasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012 Health Cluster in Haiti PAHO/WHO led the Health Cluster in Haiti, which consisted of the following sub-clusters: Mobile Clinics Hospitals Disability and Rehabilitation Health Information Management Disease Surveillance Reproductive Health Mental Health and Psychosocial Support

40 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 40 Main challenges related to Information in Haiti Pressure to provide accurate/transparent information The “We don’t have time to read” syndrome Information gaps — often filled by unvalidated sources Lack of searchable information ‘Players’ searching for visibility Poor or insufficient information, rumors Poor ‘institutional sharing’ of information

41 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 41 Information Specialists in Disasters: What was Needed in Haiti Ability to know what information is most needed and relevant at any time and in dynamic environments Ability to understand, process and present information in a pertinent way for decision making Excellent communication and writing skills Ability to make decissions on best tools for IM Able to be on-call 24/7 Use of Web 2.0 and “social media” technologies

42 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 42 In the words of the experts… 1 Process of setting up systems—even relatively simple ones like the ‘WWW’ (who does what, where, when?)—is cumbersome. Information management is central to managing the Health Cluster. WHO information manager is part of core team that is deployed. It is very difficult to sift through and analyze the large volume of reports and updates -- especially in the first week of an emergency. There are very few systematic repositories of disaster information and even with such systems in place populating them is difficult. Dr. Roderico Ofrin, WHO Regional Office for Southeast Asia Member of the tsunami health response team.

43 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 43 In the words of the experts… 2 The challenge was collecting two types of information: information for the ‘outside world,’ such as donors and agencies, and information for purely operational purposes. Social media was used in Haiti during the first days of the emergency, but was very limited, as phone and Internet service was spotty. It also may have contributed to the spread of rumors that later needed to be verified. The use of social media in response has not been well exploited or optimized – experiences from Haiti was the last in-depth study on this. Dr. Dana Van Alphen, PAHO/WHO Health Cluster Lead Earthquake in Haiti

44 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 44 Scenario Consider a major disaster such as the earthquake or cholera outbreak in Haiti or the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan, resulting from the earthquake/tsunami (or choose another disaster that claimed international attention). Try to anticipate what type of information your constituents may be looking for. Why might they be asking for this information? From your experience, or using your imagination, consider the supportive role you and your library might play in providing information about these events (you might choose to focus on response, recovery or preparedness). Research trusted sources identify some practical advice or guidance that you can give to one or more of your constituents.

45 Disasters and Health: Understanding the International Context MLA Disaster Information Specialist– September 6, 2012Center for Public Service Communications 45 Homework for Day 2 Exercise Give some examples of information you have found, what sites you have used and why this might be useful to your constituents. (This can be on any aspect of the disaster). Email your completed exercise to mlapd3@mlahq.org mlapd3@mlahq.org In the email subject line, please add the following: [your last name]_INT_Homework (e.g.,) Smith_INT_Homework Use the Moodle classroom: http://mla.mrooms.org/course/view.php?id=48 http://mla.mrooms.org/course/view.php?id=48 Some information sources Health Cluster (Haiti) http://www.hai.clustersante@paho.org http://www.hai.clustersante@paho.org Pan American Health Organization. Health Response to the Earthquake in Haiti. http://www.paho.org/disasters http://www.paho.org/disasters WHO/Western Pacific Regional Office http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we- do/health-topics/emergencies/disaster- preparedness-and-response/publications http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we- do/health-topics/emergencies/disaster- preparedness-and-response/publications (search on Fukushima) NOAA http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/index.html http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/index.html International Atomic Energy Agency http://www.iaea.org http://www.iaea.org ReliefWeb http://reliefweb.int/http://reliefweb.int/ Interaction http://www.interaction.org/http://www.interaction.org/


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