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© Crown copyright Met Office Development of the Met Office's 4DEnVar System 6th EnKF Data Assimilation Workshop, May Andrew Lorenc, Neill Bowler, Adam Clayton and Stephen Pring
Outline of Talk Terminology Why are we doing it? What is wrong with 4DVar? Addressed by: Hybrid-4DVar. Flow-dependent covariances from localised ensemble perturbations. Hybrid-4DEnVar. No need to integrate linear & adjoint models. Results of initial trials comparing these. What we need to do to improve hybrid-4DEnVar. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 2
Nomenclature for Ensemble- Variational Data Assimilation Recommendations by WMO’s DAOS WG (Lorenc 2013) : non-ambiguous terminology based on the most common established usage. 1. En should be used to abbreviate Ensemble, as in the EnKF. 2. No need for hyphens (except as established in 4D-Var) 3. 4DVar should only be used, even with a prefix, for methods using a forecast model and its adjoint each iteration. 4. EnVar means a variational method using ensemble covariances. More specific prefixes (e.g. hybrid-4DEnVar) may be added. 5. hybrid can be applied to methods using a combination of ensemble and climatological covariances. 6. The EnKF generate ensembles. EnVar does not, unless it is part of an ensemble of data assimilations (EDA). © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 3
Background 4DVar has been the best DA method for operational NWP for the last decade (Rabier 2005). Since then we have gained a day’s predictive skill – the forecast “background” is usually very good; properly identifying its likely errors is increasingly important. Most of the gain in skill has been due to increased resolution, which was enabled by faster computers. To continue to improve, we must make effective use of planned massively parallel computers. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 4
Business Performance Measures: Global Index What is important for Met Office Global Forecasting System? Competitiveness © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 5
Key weaknesses of 4DVar 1.Scientific: Background errors are modelled using a covariance which is usually assumed to be stationary, isotropic and homogeneous. Need to allow for Errors of The Day. 2.Technical: The minimisation requires repeated sequential runs of a (low resolution) linear model and its adjoint. Inefficient on massively parallel computers; difficult development when the forecast model is redesigned. The Met Office has already addressed 1 in its hybrid−4DVar (Clayton et al. 2013). Our hybrid−4DEnVar developments are attempting to extend this to also address 2. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 6
Comparison of hybrid-4DEnVar and hybrid-4DVar data assimilation methods for global NWP Andrew C Lorenc, Neill Bowler, Adam Clayton, David Fairbairn and Stephen Pring. Submitted to MWR © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 7 Trials for July 2013, based on lower res. operational global hybrid-4DVar (Clayton et al. 2013) NWP system: 640 481 70 deterministic model and 432 325 70 ensemble and PF & adjoint models in 4DVar. 44-member ensemble precalculated by MOGREPS-G (Bowler et al. 2008; Flowerdew and Bowler 2011). NameDA MethodInitialization 4DVarhybrid-4DVarJcJc 4DEnVarhybrid-4DEnVar4DIAU 3DVarhybrid-3DVarIAU 3DEnVarhybrid-3DEnVarIAU 4DVar4DIAUhybrid-4DVar4DIAU Trials:
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Statistical, incremental 4D-Var Statistical 4D-Var approximates entire PDF by a 4D Gaussian defined by PF model. 4D analysis increment is a trajectory of the PF model. Lorenc & Payne 2007
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 13 Incremental 4D-Ensemble-Var Statistical 4D-Var approximates entire PDF by a Gaussian. 4D analysis is a (localised) linear combination of nonlinear trajectories. It is not itself a trajectory.
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Results of Trial © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 16 4DVar v 4DEnVar 3.138% Relative RMS error against observations for a sample of fields and forecast ranges. Hollow grey box is 2%, max is 10%. First / Second trial is better. #.###% is the average.
The difference is due to the time-dimension © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 17 4DVar v 4DEnVar 3.138% 3DVar v 3DEnVar 0.007% 4DEnVar v 3DEnVar 0.474% 4DVar v 3DVar 3.506%
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Much smaller differences due to the initialization © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 19 4DVar v 4DEnVar 3.138% 4DVar v 4DVar 4DIAU 0.531% 4DVar 4DIAU v 4DEnVar 2.594%
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© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 21 Single wind observation at start of 6 hour window, in jet 0 36 Background trajectory Ob is at at time 0.
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc % ensemble 1200km localization scale 4DEnVar 4DVar error
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc % hybrid 1200km localization scale 4DEnVar 4D-Var
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc % climatological B 4DEnVar 3DVar 4D-Var
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc % ensemble 500km localization scale 4DEnVar 4D-Var
Relative “Strong Constraint Errors” © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 26 We ran similar tests on a Hurricane Sandy case. Here the ensemble covariances dominated, making hybrid-4DEnVar perform better. 1200km localization scale Jet case Hurricane Sandy 4DEnVar51%57% En-4DVar54%69% Hybrid-4DEnVar78%66% Hybrid-4DVar66%75% When the ensemble covariances dominated the increments, and the horizontal localization was not too severe, 4DEnVar had better consistency with the strong constraint than 4DVar.
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 27 Conclusions from 4D analysis increment study 1.The main error in our hybrid-4DEnVar (v hybrid-4DVar) is that the climatological covariance is used as in 3D-Var. 2.3D localization not following the flow is not an important error for our 1200km localization scale and 6hour window, but does become important for a 500km scale.
Improving 4DEnVar The maintenance and running costs of hybrid-4DVar are larger, so there is an incentive to improve hybrid-4DEnVar. Our results show that to do this we need to reduce the weight on climatological B relative to the ensemble covariance. But these weights are usually determined by experiment; both components provide some benefit (Etherton and Bishop 2004; Clayton et al. 2013). Increasing the ensemble weight requires us to first improve the covariances derived from the ensemble by: a bigger ensemble; better ensemble generation; better localization. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 28
Improving 4DEnVar (2) a bigger ensemble; better ensemble generation; better localization; These have part of the Met Office research (Stephen Pring’s talk) since we recognised the results presented. But none, alone, has provided early evidence of significant improvement. There are too many combinations to try. So I add to this list: better covariance diagnostics. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 29 An aim at this workshop is to get leads on the best lines to try!
Met Office R&D: Bigger Ensemble Recently doubled from 23 to 44. Needs computer power (which is coming), + evidence that this is a good way to deploy it! (See Stephen’s talk) Cost of Ensemble of 4DEnVar option is significant (w.r.t. cost of ensemble forecasts) so need technical improvements to methods. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 30
Met Office R&D: Better Ensemble We suspect current MOGREPs (localized ETKF) has deficiencies in its implied covariances. For this & other reasons we have decided to concentrate effort on developing an Ensemble of 4DEnVar. (See Stephen’s talk) Efficiency work: Single executable design to avoid IO costs. Perturbed-observation or DENKF options. Reformulate ensemble of minimisations as Mean & Perturbations – needs fewer iterations. EVIL (Tom Auligne) is only way I know of doing a SQRT filter with 4DEnVar, can be regarded as extreme limit of Mean-Pert approach. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 31
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Mean-Pert Testing © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 33 Convergence is a function of scale - small perturbations are not fully analysed. Does this matter? Power spectra of perts from mean, in a perturbed obs ensemble of 4DEnVar: Background Control ensemble with 70 iterations Mean-Pert ensemble 10 iterations 30 iterations 20 iterations 60 iterations
Met Office R&D: Better Localization We have coded options for: Spectral localization using wavebands. This has implicit horizontal smoothing (Buehner and Charron 2007, Buehner 2012) Multivariate localization: imposing the balance from VAR covariance model (but losing humidity-divergence relationships (Montmerle and Berre 2010) Multiscale localization – choosing different horizontal and vertical scales for each of the above Scale-dependent β c and β e. Vertical localization preserving small vertically integrated divergence. We are thinking about time localization and allowing for model errors. © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 34
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 35 Sampled raw ensemble s.d.
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 36 s.d. after spectral localization
Power Spectra & Implied Cov © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 37 Background perturbations Wavebands Resampled localized perturbations Streamfunction Unbalanced moisture
© Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 38 Column cross-correlations between: divergence (up) & relative humidity (across). Raw ensemble Horizontally, vertically & spectrally localized ensemble multi-variate localized ensemble
Summary: Met Office 4DEnVar Trials show that hybrid-4DEnVar is not as good as the operational hybrid-4DVar in its handling of time-constraints. If it is to improve we need to work on: a bigger ensemble; better ensemble generation; better localization; better covariance diagnostics. I have shown some current Met Office research into all these areas (more from Stephen Pring) © Crown copyright Met Office Andrew Lorenc 39
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