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Presented by Dr. Ashok Chandra Wireless Adviser to the Govt. of India, Ministry of Communications & IT.

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1 Presented by Dr. Ashok Chandra Wireless Adviser to the Govt. of India, Ministry of Communications & IT

2 Radio Spectrum : A major resource  It is an important natural scarce resource needed for all wireless applications.  Radio spectrum is always around us in the form of invisible waves.  Radio spectrum is used by countless technologies that affect most aspects of our lives.  If you pick up any newspaper, you will find an article somewhere relating to radio spectrum.  If it is not in the technology section it will almost certainly be in the business section.  Today, radio spectrum has become a significant contributor to national gross domestic product (GDP). 2 Radio Waves Radio Waves Applications

3  According to a French jurist J.D. Bedin “the frequency spectrum is technology, industry, money, culture, and power”  The RF spectrum is a multi-dimensional concept.  Dimensions are: – Radio frequency – bandwidth, – time span, – geometrical volume, and – for space applications - a segment of the satellite orbit.  There have been suggestions that other quantities, such as polarization, are also its dimensions. Radio Spectrum : A major resource There are numerous areas in which the radio frequency spectrum is vital defence, public safety, weather forecasts, disaster warning, air-traffic control, and air navigation are a few examples only.

4 Radio Frequency Spectrum 4

5 Why We need regulation  Radio frequency spectrum is a limited natural resource.  Radio frequency spectrum does not respect international geographical boundaries as it is spread over a large terrestrial area.  Two important physical characteristics (natural principles) of radiocommunications: – If two radio stations to effectively communicate, they must use the same frequency; and – If two or more radio stations are operating at the same frequency, within the same geographical area, at the same time, stations are susceptible to mutual interference which could reduce the quality of the communication or make it unintelligible.

6  Limited portion of the radio frequency spectrum is useful for specific telecommunication services:  Propagation characteristics of different types of radio waves.  Availability of technology and equipment for different types of radio frequency spectrum applications.  The suitability of frequency bands for specific applications  Unlike other natural resources, radio frequency spectrum is not consumed upon its usage.  It is also liable to be wasted if it is not used optimally and efficiently.  Radio frequency spectrum usage is therefore to be shared amongst the various radio services and must be used efficiently, optimally and economically in conformity with the provisions of national and international laws Why We need regulation

7  The current spectrum allocation process operates at both a national and international level.  At international level, International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a specialised agency of the United Nations, is responsible for spectrum management.  Broadly, international bodies tend to set out high level guidance which national bodies adhere to in setting more detailed policy.  International coordination is essential in some cases because the zones of possible interference extend beyond national geographical boundaries and in other cases because users are inherently international, e.g. aviation.  At national level, each administration has its own regulating agency like NTIA/FCC in USA, Ofcom in UK and WPC Wing in India. Why We need regulation

8 International Telecom Union  ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technologies  Founded on 17 May 1865 as the International Telegraph Union  It took its present name in 1934, and in 1947 became a specialized agency of the United Nations.  191 Member States, 700 Sector Members & Associates  750 staff / 70 nationalities  Annual budget = $140,000,000

9 Member States Sector Members Associates UN bodies e.g. WMO, WHO Regional/National SDO’s e.g. ETSI, IEC Regional Frequency Management e.g. CEPT Industry fora e.g. WiMAX 191 Member States 645 Sector Members 106 Associates International Telecom Union

10 ITU does:  International regulations and plans  Management of radio frequency spectrum  Standards and recommendations  Assistance to developing countries ITU does:  International regulations and plans  Management of radio frequency spectrum  Standards and recommendations  Assistance to developing countries Key priorities  Radio spectrum  International standard  Emergency communications & climate change  Digital divide  Cyber security Key priorities  Radio spectrum  International standard  Emergency communications & climate change  Digital divide  Cyber security  ITU works through Plenipotentiary conferences, Council, World conferences on International Telecommunications and General Secretariat. International Telecom Union

11 ITU Overview ITU ITU-T Telecommunication standardization of network and service aspects ITU-R Radiocommunication standardization and global radio spectrum management ITU-D Assisting implementation and operation of telecommunications in developing countries 191 Member States +700 Sector Members Helping the World Communicate

12 ITU Functions

13  ITU-R is a standards body subcommittee of the ITU relating to radio communication.  Its role is to regulate the allocation of radio frequencies and to reduce the interference between radio stations in various countries.  It also has responsibility for regulating orbital positions of satellites relating to radio communications.  The ITU-R plays a vital role in the management of the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits, finite natural resources which are increasingly in demand from a large number of services and those communication services that ensure safety of life on land, at sea and in the skies. Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)

14 Slide 14 Radiocommunications Bureau Administers the Radio Regulations (Table of Frequency Allocations) Radiocommunications Assembly (meeting of all Study Groups) Study Groups Guides SG technical work Plans and approves technical work (Recommendations) Working Parties Task Groups Performs technical work and drafts Recommendations (permanent) Performs technical work drafts Recommendations (highly urgent, short term) Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)

15  The tasks of Radio Communication Sector are:  To ensure rational, equitable, efficient use of the radio- frequency spectrum and satellite orbits  To register the frequency and orbital positions assignments made by the Member States  To maintain the relevant master databases Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)

16  ITU-R Mission “To ensure rational, equitable, efficient and economical use of the radio-frequency spectrum by all radiocommunication services, including those using satellite orbits, and to carry out studies and adopt recommendations on radiocommunication matters.” In implementing this mission, the actions in ITU-R aim at creating the conditions for harmonized development and efficient operation of existing and new radiocommunication systems, taking due account of all parties concerned.  ITU-R Mission “To ensure rational, equitable, efficient and economical use of the radio-frequency spectrum by all radiocommunication services, including those using satellite orbits, and to carry out studies and adopt recommendations on radiocommunication matters.” In implementing this mission, the actions in ITU-R aim at creating the conditions for harmonized development and efficient operation of existing and new radiocommunication systems, taking due account of all parties concerned. ITU-R functions conducted through:  World and Regional Radiocommunication Conferences  Radiocommunication Study Groups  Radio Regulations Board  Radiocommunication Bureau ITU-R functions conducted through:  World and Regional Radiocommunication Conferences  Radiocommunication Study Groups  Radio Regulations Board  Radiocommunication Bureau Radiocommunication Sector(ITU-R)

17 ITU-R Organisation

18 ITU-R Function

19 World Radio Conference (WRC)  Supreme body in worldwide management and regulation of the radio frequency spectrum.  The body authorized to revise Radio Regulation.  Held normally every four years, based on the national studies and the work of Study Groups reports.  The ITU-R study Groups performs:  develop ITU-R Recommendations on the technical characteristics of and operational procedures for radiocommunication services and systems  draft the technical bases for radiocommunication conferences  compile handbooks on spectrum management and emerging radiocommunication services and systems.  The ITU-R study Groups performs:  develop ITU-R Recommendations on the technical characteristics of and operational procedures for radiocommunication services and systems  draft the technical bases for radiocommunication conferences  compile handbooks on spectrum management and emerging radiocommunication services and systems.

20 World Radio Conference (WRC)  Under the terms of the ITU Constitution, a WRC can:  revise the Radio Regulations and any associated Frequency assignment and allotment Plans;  address any radiocommunication matter of worldwide character;  instruct the Radio Regulation Board and the Radio Communication Bureau, and review their activities;  determine Questions for study by the RA and its Study Groups in preparation for future Radiocommunication Conferences

21 CPM:Conference Preparatory Meeting Rec:ITU-R Recommendation RoP:Rules of Procedure RR:Radio Regulations (treaty status) WRC SC and Study Groups: SG-1: Spectrum management SG-3: Radiowave propagation SG-4: Satellite services SG-5: Terrestrial services SG-6: Broadcasting service SG-7: Science services CPM-2 RRB:Radio Regulations Board SGs:Radiocommunication Study Groups SC: Special Committee (Regulat. & Procedural) RA:Radiocommunication Assembly WRC:World Radiocommunication Conference Rec RoP Radiocommunication Bureau Director RRB Final Acts ITU Member States (including Regional Groups, Informal Group) Revisions to RR, Resolutions & Recommendations Technical bases Next WRC Agenda ITU Council CPM-1 RA The WRC Cycle

22 Radiocommunication Assembly  Radiocommunication Assemblies (RA) are responsible for the structure, programme and approval of radiocommunication studies.  Normally convened every three or four years.  The Radiocommunication Assembly 2012 was held from January 2012, immediately preceding WRC-12.  The Assemblies: – assign conference preparatory work and other questions to the Study Groups; – respond to other requests from ITU conferences; – suggest suitable topics for the agenda of future WRCs; – approve and issue ITU-R Recommendations and ITU-R Questions developed by the Study Groups; – set the programme for Study Groups, and disband or establish Study Groups according to need; – Appoint chairmen and vice-chairmen of the Study Groups; – Approve ITU-R Recommendations developed by the Study Groups.

23 ITU-Radio Regulations (RR)  The Radio Regulations (treaty status) incorporates the decisions of the World Radiocommunication Conferences, including all Appendices, Resolutions, Recommendations and ITU-R Recommendations incorporated by reference.  Recognised as an International Treaty  Set a framework for the National Regulatory Authorities to license radio users

24  Frequency block allocations to defined radio services (Article 5)  Definition of services (e.g. Fixed, Mobile- satellite)  Mandatory or voluntary regulatory procedures (coordination, plan modification, notification, recording) that are adapted to the allocation structure  Technical constraints (Power limits etc.)  International registration /co-ordination procedures ITU-Radio Regulations (RR)

25 Specialists from telecommunication organizations and administrations around the world participate in the work of the Radiocommunication Sector’s study groups.  ITU-R study groups:  develop ITU-R Recommendations on the technical characteristics of and operational procedures for radiocommunication services and systems  draft the technical bases for radiocommunication conferences  compile handbooks on spectrum management and emerging radiocommunication services and systems.  ITU-R study groups:  develop ITU-R Recommendations on the technical characteristics of and operational procedures for radiocommunication services and systems  draft the technical bases for radiocommunication conferences  compile handbooks on spectrum management and emerging radiocommunication services and systems. Study Groups

26  Study Group 1 (SG 1) – Spectrum management  Study Group 3 (SG 3) – Radio wave propagation  Study Group 4 (SG 4) – Satellite services  Study Group 5 (SG 5) – Terrestrial Services  Study Group 6 (SG 6) – Broadcasting service  Study Group 7 (SG 7) – Science services  Study Group 1 (SG 1) – Spectrum management  Study Group 3 (SG 3) – Radio wave propagation  Study Group 4 (SG 4) – Satellite services  Study Group 5 (SG 5) – Terrestrial Services  Study Group 6 (SG 6) – Broadcasting service  Study Group 7 (SG 7) – Science services Works:  >900 Recommendations  “Standards” in areas of spectrum management and radio technology  Result of consensus from meetings of world-wide experts  Some referred to in RR  Used by spectrum planners and system designers Works:  >900 Recommendations  “Standards” in areas of spectrum management and radio technology  Result of consensus from meetings of world-wide experts  Some referred to in RR  Used by spectrum planners and system designers  During the meeting of RA held in October 2007, the Structure of ITU-R Study Groups have been restructured as under: Study Groups

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28 Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing  WPC Wing, created in 1952, functions as the national radio regulatory nodal agency of the Government of India  The only National Authority for RF Spectrum Management.  Responsible for planning, regulating, and managing the limited resources of Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum  Acts through the Indian Telegraph Act 1885 (ITA 1885) and the Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 (IWTA 1933).  National agency for all matters related to ITU-R sector and Asia- Pacific Telecommunity (APT). 28

29  Assignment of frequencies for all wireless networks in the country – Government, Public and Private networks.  Interference and compatibility analysis for all new requirements with existing and planned frequency usage.  Site clearance of all wireless installations in the country and related matters concerning the Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocations (SACFA)  Formulation of National Frequency Allocation Plans (NFAP), Frequency Channelling Plans, Standardisation of radio- communication equipment for spectrum management Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing

30

31  The National Frequency Allocation Plan (NFAP) of India was evolved and made effective from  NFAP is the basis for development, manufacturing and spectrum utilization activities in the country.  NFAP is reviewed periodically in line with the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in order to cater to newly emerging technologies taking into account spectrum requirements of the government/ private sector as well as to ensure equitable and optimum utilization of the scarce limited natural resource of radio frequency spectrum.  The provisions of NFAP protect the existing assignments under their existing status, unless and until it is decided to modify or relocate these assignments.  All necessary technical, operational, regulatory and administrative measures are taken so as to avoid harmful interference. National Frequency Allocation Plan

32  The NFAP forms the basis for development and manufacturing of wireless equipment and spectrum utilisation in the country  NFAP-2011 is released on 30 September 2011 made effective from 1 October 2011 some of the salient features of NFAP-2011 are:  in line with the decisions of World Radiocommunication Conference 2007 (WRC-07) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) contained in Radio Regulations (Edition 2008)  It has been developed to cater to newly emerging technologies such as Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Intelligent Transport System (ITS), Short Range Devices, etc  Efforts have been made to ensure equitable and optimum utilization of the scarce limited natural resource of radio frequency spectrum.  It has enabled provisions in few frequency bands for indigenous development and Manufacturing.  While developing the NFAP-2011 due care has been taken to ensure protection of existing services. National Frequency Allocation Plan

33 Section of NFAP  International Frequency Allocation Table  National Frequency Allocation Table  Footnotes to International Frequency Allocation Table  Remarks in the National Frequency Allocation Table  Channeling Plan Section of NFAP  International Frequency Allocation Table  National Frequency Allocation Table  Footnotes to International Frequency Allocation Table  Remarks in the National Frequency Allocation Table  Channeling Plan National Frequency Allocation Plan

34 MHz 3300 – 3600 NATIONAL ALLOCATION INDIAREMARKS RADIOLOCATION FIXED MOBILE Amateur IND FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile Amateur Radiolocation IND FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile 5.433A Radiolocation IND 66

35 MHz 3300 – 3600 NATIONAL ALLOCATION INDIAREMARKS RADIOLOCATION FIXED MOBILE Amateur IND FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile Amateur Radiolocation IND FIXED FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE except aeronautical mobile 5.433A Radiolocation IND 66 Sub-frequency band Frequency band for national allocation Primary Services Secondary Services International Footnotes National Footnotes National Frequency Allocation Plan

36 Recent changes since the early 1990s  Technical advances have enabled the emergence of new systems using radio networks (GSM, FWA, DVB-T, WiFi, WiMax...)  These new systems are more complex and require more resources (sites, frequencies, etc.) then previous services  Market deregulation has increased the number of players and has made necessary the establishment of strong and independent regulation authorities Today’s Radio Spectrum Management

37 Consequently, new constraints have appeared :  Limitations on resources such as Frequencies and sites, the use of which must be optimized  The crowding of the spectrum is leading the Regulation Authorities to share the bands between a larger number of services  There are several other challenges like interference Management, international coordination, maintaining Technology Neutrality and harmonisation etc., and to provide safeguard to the wireless based public services and to draw the economic efficiency from the spectrum. Today’s Radio Spectrum Management

38  The current approach to spectrum management is not capable to deal such challenges.  How the spectrum will be managed in future is not very much clear at the moment but to overcome these challenges, a new flexible spectrum management is essentially required.  The flexible spectrum management means that spectrum can be accessed on dynamic basis and to be free from technology specific restrictions imposed by the traditional spectrum allocation.  In simple way, Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) allowing the new user (unlicensed) to access spectrum which has already been allocated to another user (licensed).  Cognitive Radio technology is one solution of DSA. Today’s Radio Spectrum Management

39 Cognitive Radio  The term ‘Cognitive Radio’, was first introduced by Joseph Mitola in an article published in 1999  A radio system employing technology that allows the system to obtain knowledge of its operational and geographical environment, established policies and its internal state; to dynamically and autonomously adjust its operational parameters and protocols according to its obtained knowledge in order to achieve predefined objectives; and to learn from the results obtained.

40  Key Features: – Maintains awareness of its operational and geographical environment and its internal state – adjusts its operating parameters to meet requirements and goals – Learns from previous experiences to further improve its performance – Reasons on observations to adjust adaptation goals – Take future decision based on anticipated events – Collaborates with other devices to make decisions through collective observations and knowledge Cognitive Radio

41  Obtaining knowledge of the operational radio and geographical environment to detect the spectrum white space and also to exit as soon as possible when primary user resume its communication.  Decision and adjustment i.e. selecting best suited frequency bands and adjust its operating parameter dynamically according to obtained knowledge.  Learn from the past actions to further improve its performance. Cognitive Radio

42  Cognitive radio requirements – co-exists with legacy wireless systems – uses their spectrum resources – does not interfere with them  Cognitive radio properties – RF technology that "listens" to huge swaths of spectrum – Knowledge of primary users’ spectrum usage as a function of location and time – Rules of sharing the available resources (time, frequency, space) – Embedded intelligence to determine optimal transmission (bandwidth, latency, QoS) based on primary users’ behavior Cognitive Radio

43 Application Scenarios Licensed network Secondary markets Third party access in licensed networks Unlicensed network Cellular, PCS band Improved spectrum efficiency Improved capacity Public safety band Voluntary agreements between licensees and third party Limited QoS TV bands ( MHz) Non-voluntary third party access Licensee sets a protection threshold Automatic frequency coordination Interoperability Co-existence ISM, UNII, Ad-hoc

44 SCC41 Working Group IEEE : Standard Definitions and Concepts for Spectrum Management and Advanced Radio System Technologies IEEE : Recommended Practice for Interference and Coexistence Analysis IEEE : Standard for Assessing the Spectrum Access Behavior of Radio Systems Employing Dynamic Spectrum Access Methods IEEE : Standard for Architectural building blocks enabling network-device distributed decision making for optimized radio resource usage in heterogeneous wireless access Networks IEEE a: Standard for Architectural Building Blocks Enabling Network-Device Distributed Decision Making for Optimized Radio Resource Usage in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Networks IEEE : Standard for Interfaces and Protocols Enabling Distributed Decision Making for Optimized Radio Resource Usage in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks IEEE : Standard on Policy Language and Policy Architectures IEEE : Standard on interfaces and data structures for exchanging spectrum sensing information

45 Cognitive Radio System in ITU-R WP1B  CPM text on WRC-12 agenda item 1.19  Draft WRC Resolution [A119-B2] for WRC-12 agenda item 1.19 WP5A  Working document towards a draft new Report ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS1]  Working document towards a draft new Report ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS2] WP5D  Preliminary draft new Report ITU-R M.[IMT.CRS]

46 History of CR in ITU-R  Mar, 2006: Canada proposed Question for cognitive radio in ITU-R WP8A „Characteristics, performance, application -> WP8A  „Concept, frequency management, regulation -> WP1B  „Sep, 2006: Question for cognitive radio (Q.241/5) was approved  „WP8A technically studies CR, and WP1B studies regulatory issues.  „Jun, 2007: Start drafting Report on  „Nov, 2007: Agenda item 1.19 (SDR and  „Nov, 2007: CPM (Conference Preparatory Meeting)  „Responsible group: ITU-R WP1B  „Jun, 2008: Start study in WP1B  „Work on draft CPM text (definition, regulatory issues)  „Jun, 2010: Finalize draft CPM text in WP1B  „Jun, 2011: Finalize ITU-R Resolution in WP1B  „Jan, 2012: RA-12  „Jan-Feb, 2012: WRC-12

47 ITU-R WRC-12 on CRS

48  WRC – 12 : Agenda Item No “to consider regulatory measures and their relevance, in order to enable the introduction of software-defined radio and cognitive radio system, based on the result of ITU-R studies, in accordance with Resolution 956(WRC-07).”  RESOLUTION 956 (WRC-07): Regulatory measures and their relevance to enable the introduction of software- defined radio and cognitive radio systems resolves to invite ITU-R – to study whether there is a need for regulatory measures related to the application of cognitive radio system technologies; – to study whether there is a need for regulatory measures related to the application of software-defined radio, resolves further that WRC-11 consider the results of these studies and take the appropriate actions. ITU-R WRC-12 on CRS

49 Study structure for agenda item 1.19 (WRC-12)

50 CPM Report  Definition of Cognitive Radio System (as published in Report ITU-R SM.2152): “Cognitive radio system (CRS) is a radio system employing technology that allows the system to obtain knowledge of its operational and geographical environment, established policies and its internal state; to dynamically and autonomously adjust its operational parameters and protocols according to its obtained knowledge in order to achieve predefined objectives; and to learn from the results obtained.”

51  In the case of LMS, CRS technologies may yield significant benefits by providing increased spectral efficiency of existing spectrum and mitigate the problem of congestion  Common Concern within ITU-R – Potection of existing services from potential interference from the services implementing CRS technology, especially from the dynamic spectrum access capability of CRS. – Any system of a specific service using CRS in a frequency band allocated to that service should be operated in accordance with the provisions of the Radio Regulations and administration rules. CPM Report

52  Deployment Scenarios: – Use of CRS technology to guide reconfiguration of connections between terminals and multiple radio systems – Use of CRS technology by an operator of radiocommunication systems to improve the management of its assigned spectrum resources – Use of CRS technology as an enabler of cooperative spectrum access – Use of CRS technology as an enabler of opportunistic spectrum access CPM Report

53  CRS challenges and opportunities – „ Some concerns with respect to the use of the CRS technology to dynamically access the spectrum for the band exclusively allocated to Passive services – „ Satellite operators in the EESS using passive sensors – „ Interference avoidance to FSS and BSS (detection of receive-only terminals and use of database) – „ Any use of CRS technologies for safety-of-life operations – The hidden node problem by fading and shadowing effects  A CRS station to obtain the proper authorization from the relevant Administration prior to the use of the spectrum. CPM Report

54  CRS capabilities and their applicability to facilitate coexistence in shared bands – „„spectrum sensing capability including collaborative and cooperative sensing; – „positioning capability of the transmitters and receivers (geo- location); – „access to information on the spectrum usage, local regulatory requirements and policies, e.g. through access to a database or access to a logical or physical cognitive pilot channel; – capabilities to adjust operational parameters based on the obtained knowledge.  These capabilities of CRS may help improve coexistence amongst radiocommunication systems deployed under the current regulatory regime CPM Report

55  Analysis of Result of Studies: – The implementation of CRS will have to be in accordance with the Radio Regulations and with national regulations. – Whether CRS technology is used as an enabler of cooperative spectrum access amongst system operators or of opportunistic spectrum access, administrations issue the authorization for a station to use a radio frequency. – „Further studies required on CRS technology, addressing especially dynamic and/or opportunistic spectrum access.  „Regulatory implications for CRS: – „ No need for modification to the Radio Regulations – No change to the Radio Regulations and an ITU-R Resolution providing guidance for further studies on CRS – It is proposed to develop a Resolution calling for studies on CRS with special emphasis on sharing issues. CPM Report

56 CRS in ITU-R WP5A Report submitted in two parts;  “ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS1]: „“Cognitive radio systems in the land mobile service (Part 1) ”: General description of cognitive radio systems, Technical features and capabilities, Potential benefits, Technical Challenges and Deployment scenarios  “ITU-R M.[LMS.CRS2]: „“Cognitive radio systems in the land mobile service (Part 2) ”: Applications, Cognitive Radio systems operational techniques, Coexistence, Technical consideration regarding the impact on spectrum use and Annexure

57 CRS in ITU-R WP5D Report ITU-R M.[IMT.CRS] “Cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems” describes mainly: Scenarios of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems, Determination of the IMT spectrum usage, Description and impacts of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems and Performance of IMT systems with CRS capability

58 Scenarios of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems Upgrade of an existing radio interface or a network with a new radio interface Scenario of cognitive radio systems in intra-operator

59  In-band coverage/capacity improvement by relays  Self-configuration and self-optimization of femtocells  Multi-modes coexistence and simultaneous transmission Scenarios of cognitive radio systems specific for IMT systems

60 WRC -12 Decision w.r.to CRS RESOLUTION 956 (WRC ‑ 07) Regulatory measures and their relevance to enable the introduction of software-defined radio and cognitive radio systems Decision: SUPPRESSED (No further Study) considering that no „need for modification to the Radio Regulations

61 RECOMMENDATION COM6/1 (WRC ‑ 12): Deployment and use of cognitive radio systems Recognizing a)that any radio system implementing CRS technology needs to operate in accordance with the provisions of the Radio Regulations; b)that the use of CRS does not exempt administrations from their obligations with regard to the protection of stations of other administrations operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations; c)that CRSs are expected to provide flexibility and improved efficiency to overall spectrum use, recommends – that administrations participate actively in the ITU ‑ R studies conducted under Resolution ITU ‑ R 58, taking into account recognizing a) and b). WRC -12 Decision w.r.to CRS

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