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JMA 1 GCOS Surface Network Monitoring Centre Climate Prediction Division HIROSHI NAKAMIGAWA.

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Presentation on theme: "JMA 1 GCOS Surface Network Monitoring Centre Climate Prediction Division HIROSHI NAKAMIGAWA."— Presentation transcript:

1 JMA 1 GCOS Surface Network Monitoring Centre Climate Prediction Division HIROSHI NAKAMIGAWA

2 JMA 2 Activities of GSN Monitoring Centre and CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data GSN Monitoring Centre(GSNMC) To monitor the availability of the CLIMAT messages of GSN stations distributed via GTS CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data To contact directly NMHSs about CLIMAT messages to improve the availability on the basis of GSNMC’s monitoring results GCOS Surface Network NMHSs: National Meteorological or Hydrological Services

3 JMA 3 What is GCOS ? High quality and reliable climatological data are needed Aim to ensure the observation to deal with climate-related issues are made available to all potential users. GCOS is intended to meet the needs for # Climate system monitoring, climate change detection # Research toward improved understanding, modeling and prediction of climate system GCOS deals with the total climate system including atmospheric, oceanic, hydrologic, terrestrial processes. GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) : Established in 1992 by the WMO and 3 other international organizations GUAN (GCOS Upper-Air Network) GSN (GCOS Surface Network) AOPC (Atmospheric Observation Panel for Climate) To provide high quality / reliable climate data For many scientific and commercial purpose Discussed per. obs. net.

4 JMA 4 GSN Selection 940 stations were selected from 8,653 stations (1) Record quality (2) Representativeness of the location (3) Areal coverage (4) Prospect for continuity in the future - First discussion in Initial Selection in 1996 (criteria of selection) * Record length * Homogeneous (no or little moving the location) * Reference (meta data for the station) * Current Report via GTS * Population (not urbanized) GSN Station in JMA + + Showa in Antarctic - After some changes by NMHSs, 981 stations are resistered (Jan,2003) - Manual on the GSN and GUAN (2002,WMO/GCOS)

5 JMA 5 Activity of GSNMC ・ Task ・ Monitoring Methods ・ Products GSN Monitoring Centre To provide high quality / reliable climate data The need for monitoring the network routinely GSNMC (GSN Monitoring Centre) established in 1999 GSN (GCOS Surface Network) (JMA,DWD) DWD:Germany Meteorological Service

6 JMA 6 I) To monitor the availability, timeliness and completeness of the CLIMAT messages distributed via GTS to improve the performance of the GSN; II) To perform basic quality control for GSN stations to obtain high quality and completeness of the data set. Task of GSNMC CLIMAT : climatological monthly data such as monthly mean surface pressure, temperature,vapor pressure, sunshine, precipitation,... (about 2500 stations) GTS : Global Telecommunication System

7 JMA 7 (monthly) # Collect CLIMAT # Decord,QC # Produce monitoring results Monitoring Methods and Data Flow Data flow among the organizations WMO SecretariatWMO Monitoring Reports Historical Data National and international Clients Data and meta data CLIMAT messages GTSGTSGTSGTS World Data Centre in Asheville GSN-CLIMAT monitoring products (monthly) GSNMC Home Page Monitoring Reports CLIMAT messages Data and meta data Data and meta data Monitoring products Monitoring Products NMHSs NMHSs operating GSN stations NMHSs NMHSs operating GSN stations Operated by DWD GSN Monitoring Centres Germany, Japan GSN Monitoring Centres Germany, Japan

8 JMA 8 GSNMC Home Page CLIMAT Data (with format errors and QC) Monitoring Reports GSN Station Lists and Maps Monitoring Products

9 JMA 9 Monitoring Results Monitoring Elements ・ Timeliness ・ Completeness ・ Correctness ・ Quality for temperature and precipitation (JMA takes responsible for temperature, while DWD for precipitation) ・ GSN station meta-data Monitoring Elements in GSNMC

10 JMA 10 Monitoring Results Timeliness CLIMAT should be disseminated by 5 th not later than 8 th day CLIMAT should be disseminated by 5 th not later than 8 th day ・ Most reports were received by 8 th ・ ・ Reception Rate by 5 th were around 50%, by 8 th were a little less than 60%

11 JMA 11 Monitoring Results Completeness Ⅰ RA I RA II RA III RA IV RA V RA VI ANTARCTICA

12 JMA 12 Monitoring Results Completeness Ⅱ ・ The highest reception rate is RA IV ・ The situation was severe in RA I (around 40%) ・ The percentage in RA II has increased gradually. I II II III IV V VI ANTARCTICA

13 JMA 13 Monitoring Results Correctness March-August 2003 ・ Random ・ Systematic (specific countries) - Incorrect 111 identified - Not Actual Month - Needless words - No end of message mark(=) - CLIMAT:wrong spelled The ratio of most frequent errors CSJP02 RJTD CLIMAT PART // =

14 JMA 14 Monitoring Results Quality QC results for monthly mean temperature from March to August 2003 # 35-38% data in GSN couldn’t checked (Flag 0) # Most of them were decided good (Flag 2,3) #characteristic is almost the same as QC for temperature 1

15 JMA 15 CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Background The reception rate of CLIMAT messages and the systematic errors haven’t been improved remarkably To build up some mechanisms to contact between GSNMC and NMHSs directly and give some advice on the technical problems Anticipated NMHSs react directly and send the sufficient CLIMAT messages or eliminate their systematic errors according to the GSNMC’s monitoring results CBS : Commission for Basic System (One of the WMO Commission) As a centre implementing such a task, CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data for GSN Data were proposed in 2002 JMA offered and started the activity in August 2003

16 JMA 16 CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Role among the Centres GSN Monitoring Centre CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Contact NMHSs sending no / erroneous CLIMAT messages -Problem detection -Give advice on correct message GTS Dissemination of CLIMAT messages Request sending CLIMAT messages by , if GTS trouble Home Page National Meteorological or Hydrological Services ( WMO Members ) Monitoring Products and CLIMAT data for historical GSN and GUAN Data (JMA, DWD) (NCDC) Monitoring Products (JMA) Focal Points Objective The Lead Centre aims to improve the quantity and quality of GSN data, contained in CLIMAT messages exchanged over the GTS, by exchanging the GSN monitoring information directly with the NMHSs Transmit CLIMAT messages Operated by DWD

17 JMA 17 CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Activities ( i ) Identification of NHMSs with problems. (NMHSs:National Meteorological or Hydrological Services) ( ii ) Contact with NHMSs from which no CLIMAT message is received. (iii) Support to NMHSs for preparing CLIMAT messages in a standard format. (iv) Report on the CBSLC's activities to the other CBS Lead Centre(s), WMO and GCOS Secretariat. (CBSLC: CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data) (v) Maintenance of the list of FPs in co-operation with WMO Secretariat. (FPs:National Focal Points for climatological data monitoring issues)

18 JMA 18 Focal Point of NMHS CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Activities I (i) Identification of NMHSs with problems. Based on the results of the monthly monitoring provided by the GSNMC, the CBSLC identifies NMHSs to be contacted. CBS Lead Centre Contact by Formal letters regarding nomination of the Focal Points were sent to each NMHS by WMO Secretariat in September,2003 GSNMC’s monitoring results

19 JMA 19 CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Activities (ii) Contact with NMHSs from which no CLIMAT message is received. 1.For the NMHSs from which no CLIMAT message of a GSN station has reached the GSNMC for several months or longer, the CBSLC liaises with Focal Points (FPs) of the NMHSs to find out the reason. 2.If a problem is identified in communication, the Centre will request the NMHSs to explore an alternative method for sending the CLIMAT messages to the CBSLC as a tentative measure, by for example. Not make CLIMAT Messages Questionnaire Make CLIMAT Messages Maybe communication problem such as the GTS Format error Not full knowledge for making CLIMAT message Not recognized as GSN stations Sparse daily observation data Financial problem(facilities, observers, …) Other reasons Request sending the CLIMAT messages by Give technical advice how to make a correct CLIMAT message Report the situation to the WMO and GCOS Secretariat to take the remedial actions Request making and sending the CLIMAT messages by the GTS, if possible GTS/ Internet NMHSs GSNMC (in DWD) WDC (NCDC) All Potential Users

20 JMA 20 CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Activities III (iii) Support to NMHSs for preparing CLIMAT messages in a standard format. 1.For the NMHSs which send erroneous CLIMAT messages consistently, the Centre will notify the FP of the NMHSs and give advice on preparing a correct message. 2.The Centre will readily respond to technical questions on the preparation of a CLIMAT message from FPs Manual on Codes Vol.I (1995) GSN/GUAN Guide (2002) Guide To Climatological Practices(1983,2001) CLIMAT/CLIMAT TEMP Handbook (2004?) CSJP02 RJTD KLIMAT PART // erroneous = CSJP02 RJTD CLIMAT // = correct

21 JMA 21 CBS Lead Centre for GSN Data Activities (iv) Report on the Centre's activities to the other CBS Lead Centre(s), WMO and GCOS Secretariat. 1.The CBSLC will make a report which includes the Centre's activities and GSN monitoring results provided by the GSNMC. The report will be prepared on an annual basis. 2.It will present information on the problems which are identified by the Centre to be the causes for deteriorating the availability and quality of GSN data. 3.The report will be passed on to the other CBS Lead Centre(s) for GCOS data, the WMO and GCOS Secretariat. 4.The report including follow up actions should be made available to CBS and AOPC. (v) Maintenance of the list of FPs in co-operation with WMO Secretariat. The CBSLC will update the list of FPs when their replacements are named by the NMHSs concerned or provided through the WMO Secretariat.


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