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World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water WMO OMM WMO Overview of WMO Drought Activities Robert Stefanski.

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Presentation on theme: "World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water WMO OMM WMO Overview of WMO Drought Activities Robert Stefanski."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water WMO OMM WMO Overview of WMO Drought Activities Robert Stefanski Agricultural Meteorology Division Climate Prediction and Adaptation Branch Climate and Water Department

2 WMO OMM 2 Outline Drought as Global Issue Drought Early Warning Systems Overview of WMO Drought Activities Proposed Integrated Drought Management Programme


4 WMO OMM 4 Probability of Occurrence of Drought (%) and Drought Prone Areas (1875-2004)

5 WMO OMM 5 Status and trends of drought Africa: Drought events per country from 1970 to 2004 Climate change to exacerbate drought Two thirds of Africa is classified as either deserts or drylands. Current climate scenarios- driest regions of the world will become even drier Source: Adapted from Noojin, Leah 2006. Factors that influence Famine in Sub-saharan African Countries Increasing frequency and severity of drought witnessed in the continent

6 WMO OMM 6 Need for Early Warning Systems for Drought Since 1967, droughts have affected one in two people out of the 2.8 billion that have suffered from weather-related disasters. Drought has been responsible for millions of deaths and has cost hundreds of billions of dollars in damage. In developed countries the damage is mainly economic, but in developing countries droughts can cause human suffering and loss of life. Important to detect or predict a drought as soon as possible, so that the implementation of emergency measures and the organisation of aid will be given enough time to minimise the damage.

7 WMO OMM 7 EWS is an Essential Component of Drought Management Drought management has three major components: Monitoring and early warning Risk and impact assessment Mitigation and response

8 WMO OMM 8 What is an Early Warning System for Drought ? Formal UN definition: “The provision of timely and effective information, through identifying institutions, that allow individuals exposed to a hazard to take action to avoid or reduce their risk and prepare for effective response” (ISDR, 2003). Early Warning System (EWS) become practical tool for implementing timely and appropriate responses to droughts and famine via food aid and other mitigation strategies Early warning involves developing regional drought histories, monitoring current weather, using climate projections and determining possible outcomes of developing drought events, and answering questions on drought duration and severity. Effective EWSs should involve both technology and all interested parties in drought planning and response.

9 WMO OMM 9 Examples of Early Warning Systems FAO’s Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (GIEWS) USAID’s Famine Early Warning System (FEWS) Southern African Development Community (SADC) Regional and National Early Warning System US and North American Drought Monitors Australia – National Agricultural Monitoring System (NAMS) - Australian Climate and Agricultural Monthly Update

10 WMO OMM 10 Needs and Shortcomings of Early Warning Systems Data Networks Data Sharing User friendly Products Drought Forecasts Drought Monitoring Tools Integrated Drought/Climate Monitoring Impact Assessment Methodology Weak Delivery Systems Global Early Warning Systems

11 WMO OMM 11 WMO VISION To provide world leadership in expertise and international cooperation in weather, climate, hydrology and water resources, and related environmental issues, and thereby to contribute to the safety and well being of people throughout the world and to the economic benefit of all nations

12 WMO OMM 12 WMO Supports Developing Countries Through National and Regional Projects Modernization of NMHSs and observing networks. Implementation of national operational multi-hazard early warning systems. Strengthening of hazard analysis and hydro- meteorological risk assessment tools. Strengthening NMHSs cooperation with civil protection and disaster risk management agencies. Coordinated training and public outreach programmes.

13 WMO OMM 13 Drought Monitoring Centres (DMCs) for Eastern and Southern Africa 24 participating countries Two operational centres in Nairobi and Harare charged with timely monitoring of drought intensity, geographical extent, duration and impact on agricultural production; and issuing early warnings Improved applications of meteorological and hydrological data and products 10-day weather advisories, decadal climatological summaries, decadal agromet conditions and impacts, decadal synoptic review and weather outlook Monthly drought monitoring bulletins for the sub-regions

14 WMO OMM 14 Historical Background of DMCs Established in 1989/90 by African Governments with WMO as Executing Agency. Initial funding from UNDP At the end of the UNDP funded Project in 1998 and due to the increased demand for climate information and prediction services, the Nairobi and Harare components started operating independently.

15 WMO OMM 15 Historical Background of DMCs (cont.) The 10th Summit of the IGAD Heads of State and Government that was held in Kampala, Uganda in October 2003 ratified the decision to absorb DMC, Nairobi as an autonomous specialized Institution of IGAD - Since April 2002, core activities of DMC, Harare are funded by SADC. However, programme activities are still being funded by cooperating partners: WMO, USAID, NOAA and others.

16 WMO OMM 16 Role of DMCs The provision of early warning for the formulation of appropriate strategies to combat the adverse effects of climate extremes affords greater opportunity to decision- makers for development of prudent plans for mitigating the negative impacts on socio-economic sectors. Since, establishment, the DMCs have played an important and central role in providing the sub-region with weather and climate advisories and more importantly, timely early warning on drought, floods and other extreme climate events.

17 WMO OMM 17 Regional Coordinated Networks in Support of Early Warnings, Specialized Services and Training

18 WMO OMM 18 WMO helped establish Drought Management Center for South Eastern Europe (DMCSEE) Oct. 2004: Poiana/Brasow Workshop Apr. 2006: Sofia Workshop Sep. 2006: Decision on DMCSEE hosting country Nov. 2006: Technical meeting in Geneva Preparation of project proposal, Jan. – Apr. 2007 Kick-off meeting in Ljubljana, Apr. 2007 Two International Steering Committee Meetings in 2008 and 2009 Funding received from the European Union

19 WMO OMM 19 WMO working on establishing Drought Management Center for Central Asia (DMCCA) WMO, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) working together to establish the DMCCA. Technical Seminar on preparation towards Terms of Reference for a Regional Drought Centre in Central Asia (20-21 November, 2007, Tashkent, Uzbekistan) Second Workshop on establishing a Drought Management Centre in Central Asia (May 2008, Kyrgyzstan) WMO Consultant visited the five Central Asian countries ie., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in November 2009 to consult with relevant organizations and institutions and prepare project proposal.

20 WMO OMM 20 WMO Publications

21 WMO OMM 21 Proposed Integrated Drought Management Programme WMO and the Global Water Partnership are proposing an Integrated Drought Management Programme. Similar to APFM Targeting intergovernmental, governmental and non- governmental organizations involved in drought monitoring, prediction, drought risk reduction and management. Primary beneficiaries are expected to be governmental institutions, agencies responsible for developing drought management policies and/or implementing systems for drought monitoring, prediction, preparedness and mitigation. The principal approach to develop global co-ordination of efforts to strengthen drought monitoring, risk identification, drought prediction and early warning services and development of drought management knowledge base.

22 WMO OMM 22 Proposed Integrated Drought Management Programme (cont) The expected services to be provided are: –Regional coordination of drought monitoring, prediction and early warning activities –Inception of pilot projects and coordination of regional projects to showcase best practices –Collection and dissemination of information and knowledge on good practices; –Guidelines, methodologies, tools and supporting documentation on policy development and management practices and procedures; and –Capacity building and advice on Integrated Drought Management.

23 WMO OMM 23 Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) Joint Initiative - World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Water Partnership (GWP) Secretariat Technical Support Unit in WMO Inception Phase: 2001- 2002 Implementation Phase I: 2002- 2006 Implementation Phase II: 2006-2010 Trust Fund current contributors: Japan and Switzerland

24 WMO OMM 24 Flood Management Policy Series

25 WMO OMM 25 Conclusions Given the increasing intensity and frequency of droughts, there is now an urgent need to establish effective early warning systems for drought, especially in the developing countries. There is a pressing need to discuss and recommend standard indices for droughts of different categories to improve EWSs. Advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) must be fully utilized to improve the production and dissemination of EWSs.

26 World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water WMO OMM WMO Thank You World Meteorological Organization Geneva Switzerland

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