Presentation on theme: "THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery What was the controversy in the territories about? Why."— Presentation transcript:
THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery What was the controversy in the territories about? Why was the Compromise of 1850 adopted?
The South in the mid-1800’s is increasingly… Single Crop Plantation Economy (Cotton) Rural Segregated –black v. white –rich planters v. poor whites Fearful of Northern interference & slave revolts The North in the mid-1800’s is increasingly… Industrial economy Urban Socially and Culturally Diverse –Immigration from Europe More and more abolitionists More opposition to spread of slavery
Slavery in Territories Should territories and new states have slavery –Missouri Compromise Wilmot Proviso –Closed to slavery California, Utah, and New Mexico –Against southern constitutional rights Congress had no right to control the territories Passed by the House, rejected by the Senate –Twice
Debate over Slavery in the territories leads to… SECTIONALISM!!! (AGAIN!!!) Wilmot Proviso = an amendment passed in 1846, stating that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in the territory seized from Mexico during the war. WHY? More slave states would upset the balance of power established in the Missouri Compromise. PROBLEM: Gold Rush means that California is ready to become a state, due to population boom. California petitions to be a FREE state, despite being below the 36º30’ Missouri Compromise Line
Sectionalism in Presidential Politics 1848: Polk decides not to Run –Democrats run Lewis Cass (pop sovereignty) –Whigs run war hero “Rough and Ready” Zachary Taylor –Anti-Slavery forces choose to create a new 3 rd party called the Free soil party Martin Van Buren
The Senate Debates CA. applies for admission as a Free State. Pres. Zachary Taylor backs CA’s admission as a free state –he supports the idea of popular sovereignty = the people of each territory should vote whether to be free or slave. Some Southern states, fearing a shift in the balance between N and S, threaten secession = formally withdrawing from the Union. (most of CA below 36’ 30 “ line Senators Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, work out the Compromise of 1850, and save the Union from splitting into sections.
Statehood for California Gold Rush –Population explosion Skipped requirements to become a territory State Constitution –Outlawed slavery –Outrage of Southerners Location of California How should California enter the union? –Free or slave –Balance of power
Compromise of 1850 CONCESSIONS TO NORTH California admitted as free (16-15) New Mexico to receive disputed land with Texas Slave trade, but not slavery, abolished in D.C. CONCESSIONS TO SOUTH New Mexico and Utah Territories to be determined by popular sovereignty Texas paid $10 million as compensation for New Mexico Stronger Fugitive Slave Act
The Fugitive Slave Act Most Controversial –“Only” real “victory” for South in Compromise –Made the process easier for slave owners –Commissioners and judges paid more to return slaves –No testimony from accused slaves –Citizens had to actively be part of the process –More federal officials to enforce the law –Results (terror for free balcks, personal liberty laws, increase in activity of underground railroad
COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE & THE COMPROMISE OF 1850
Compromise of 1850: The Players NAME: Calhoun Taylor Clay Douglas Webster Fillmore ROLE: = Opposed = Architect, Supporter = Advocate, Supporter = Supporter = Conciliator Calhoun and Webster famously debate the Compromise. Calhoun rejects it, Webster argues for it.
COMPROMISE OF 1850 Calhoun and Webster debate the Compromise. Calhoun rejects it, Webster argues for it. Calhoun= advocate of state’s rights. Slaveholders have no need to get permission to take their property into the new territories. Webster= the Union must be preserved, even if some Southerners and some abolitionists remain unsatisfied. Senate FAILS to adopt the compromise. Clay retires. Stephen A. Douglass (Illinois) renews efforts to pass the Compromise in sections, which works. Calhoun’s death helps the bill to pass, also. Taylor dies, and Millard Fillmore becomes President. Fillmore supports compromise and signs the bill into law.
Time line of Slavery /5ths Compromise Missouri Compromise. Slavery in the Territories, balance of power Texas is admitted as a Slave state End of the war with Mexico, new territories gained, slave or free. California applies for statehood, state constitution prohibits slavery Compromise of 1850