Presentation on theme: "THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryWhat was the controversy in the territories about?Why was the Compromise of 1850 adopted?
2 The South in the mid-1800’s is increasingly… The North in the mid-1800’s is increasingly…Single Crop Plantation Economy (Cotton)RuralSegregatedblack v. whiterich planters v. poor whitesFearful of Northern interference & slave revoltsIndustrial economyUrbanSocially and Culturally DiverseImmigration from EuropeMore and more abolitionistsMore opposition to spread of slavery
8 Slavery in Territories Should territories and new states have slaveryMissouri CompromiseWilmot ProvisoClosed to slaveryCalifornia, Utah, and New MexicoAgainst southern constitutional rightsCongress had no right to control the territoriesPassed by the House, rejected by the SenateTwice
9 Debate over Slavery in the territories leads to… SECTIONALISM. (AGAIN Wilmot Proviso = an amendment passed in 1846, stating that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in the territory seized from Mexico during the war.WHY? More slave states would upset the balance of power established in the Missouri Compromise.PROBLEM: Gold Rush means that California is ready to become a state, due to population boom. California petitions to be a FREE state, despite being below the 36º30’ Missouri Compromise Line
10 Sectionalism in Presidential Politics 1848: Polk decides not to RunDemocrats run Lewis Cass (pop sovereignty)Whigs run war hero “Rough and Ready”Zachary TaylorAnti-Slavery forces choose to create a new 3rd party called the Free soil partyMartin Van Buren
12 The Senate DebatesCA. applies for admission as a Free State. Pres. Zachary Taylor backs CA’s admission as a free statehe supports the idea of popular sovereignty = the people of each territory should vote whether to be free or slave.Some Southern states, fearing a shift in the balance between N and S, threaten secession = formally withdrawing from the Union. (most of CA below 36’ 30 “ lineSenators Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, work out the Compromise of 1850, and save the Union from splitting into sections.
14 Statehood for California Gold RushPopulation explosionSkipped requirements to become a territoryState ConstitutionOutlawed slaveryOutrage of SouthernersLocation of CaliforniaHow should California enter the union?Free or slaveBalance of power
15 Compromise of 1850 CONCESSIONS TO NORTH California admitted as free (16-15)New Mexico to receive disputed land with TexasSlave trade, but not slavery, abolished in D.C.CONCESSIONS TO SOUTHNew Mexico and Utah Territories to be determined by popular sovereigntyTexas paid $10 million as compensation for New MexicoStronger Fugitive Slave Act
16 The Fugitive Slave Act Most Controversial “Only” real “victory” for South in CompromiseMade the process easier for slave ownersCommissioners and judges paid more to return slavesNo testimony from accused slavesCitizens had to actively be part of the processMore federal officials to enforce the lawResults (terror for free balcks, personal liberty laws, increase in activity of underground railroad
19 COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE & THE COMPROMISE OF 1850
20 Compromise of 1850: The Players NAME:CalhounTaylorClayDouglasWebsterFillmoreROLE:= Opposed= Architect, Supporter= Advocate, Supporter= Supporter= ConciliatorCalhoun and Webster famously debate the Compromise. Calhoun rejects it, Webster argues for it.
21 COMPROMISE OF 1850Calhoun and Webster debate the Compromise. Calhoun rejects it, Webster argues for it.Calhoun= advocate of state’s rights. Slaveholders have no need to get permission to take their property into the new territories.Webster= the Union must be preserved, even if some Southerners and some abolitionists remain unsatisfied.Senate FAILS to adopt the compromise. Clay retires. Stephen A. Douglass (Illinois) renews efforts to pass the Compromise in sections, which works. Calhoun’s death helps the bill to pass, also.Taylor dies, and Millard Fillmore becomes President. Fillmore supports compromise and signs the bill into law.
22 Time line of Slavery 1787 1820 1845 1848 1849 1850 3/5ths Compromise Missouri Compromise. Slavery in the Territories, balance of powerTexas is admitted as a Slave stateEnd of the war with Mexico, new territories gained, slave or free.California applies for statehood, state constitution prohibits slaveryCompromise of 1850