Presentation on theme: "World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water Submarine Cables for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning ITU-"— Presentation transcript:
World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water Submarine Cables for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning ITU- UNESCO/IOC- WMO Workshop Dr Wenjian ZHANG, D/OBS, WMO September 8, 2011, ROME www.wmo.int WMO
The WMO is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources. The Vision of the WMO ： To provide world leadership in expertise and international co- operation in Weather, Climate, Water, and related environmental issues, and thereby to contribute to the safety and well being of people throughout the world and to the economic benefit of all nations. I: Brief Introduction of The World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
Organizational Structure of WMO (189 Members ) CONGRESS Executive Council Regional Associations Technical Commissions Working Groups Rapporteurs Working Groups Rapporteurs Other Joint Bodies WCRP, IPCC GCOS Working Groups Panel of Experts Secretary-GeneralSecretariat WMO/OMM Dr W. Zhang, WMO Presentation @ ITU/IOC/WMO Workshop, Rome, Italy
WMO Global Observing System (GOS) World Weather Watch - Global Observing System (GOS, 1963), WMO backbone system Surface & Ocean in situ observing networks Upper-air networks Surface remote sensing (Radar) networks Airborne and observations Satellite constellations
1day 1week 1month 1season 1year1 decade 1 century The Seamless Prediction Problem Fronts Convective systems Cyclones Blocks MJO NAO QBO PDOENSO AMO
1day 1week 1month 1season 1year1 decade 1 century The Seamless Prediction Problem Fronts Convec systems Cyclones Blocks MJO NAO QBO PDOENSO AMO atmosphere ocean regionglobal skinupperfull land moisturevegetation atmospheric chemistry Ice sheets
Need an Integrated Global Observing System meet all requirements ： WIGOS
A Seamless Prediction Framework Forecast Lead Time Warnings & Alert Coordination Watches Forecasts Threats Assessments Guidance Outlook Predictio n ApplicationsTransportationTransportation Protection of Life & Property Space Applications RecreationRecreation EcosystemEcosystem State/Local Planning EnvironmentEnvironment Water Management A griculture Water Resource Planning EnergyEnergy CommerceCommerce HydropowerHydropower Fire Weather HealthHealth ForecastUncertaintyForecastUncertainty Initial Conditions Boundary Conditions Minutes Hours Days 1 Week 2 Weeks Months Seasons Years Weather Climate Variability Scenarios Anthropogenic Forcing Climate Change. Adapted from: NOAA Decades Centuries
GFCS needs observing the Earth as a Complex System Circulation Surface Winds Precipitation Reflection and Transmission Surface Temperature EvaporationCurrentsUpwellingCirculation Surface Winds Precipitation Reflection and Transmission Surface Temperature EvaporationCurrentsUpwelling InfiltrationRunoff Nutrient Loading Surface Temperature CurrentsInfiltrationRunoff Nutrient Loading Surface Temperature Currents Surface Winds Precipitation Reflection and Transmission EvaporationTranspiration Surface Temperature Surface Winds Precipitation Reflection and Transmission EvaporationTranspiration Surface Temperature Land Ocean Atmosphere
Current coverage WMO Co-sponsored Global Observing Systems --Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) IOC-led, UNEP ， WMO and ICSU JCOMM Observations Programme Area (OPA) Implementation Goals now taking into account
Risk levels: Top 30%:Red; Middle 30%:yellow; Lowest 40%: Blue: Global Hotspot study (World Bank with ProVention Consortium ) 35 countries have more than 5% pop in areas at risk from three or more hazards 96 countries have more than 10% pop in areas at risk from two or more hazards 160 countries have more than 25% pop in areas at risk from one or more hazards Global Challenges We Share As society becomes more complex we become more sensitive to natural and human induced variability, particularly along coast areas Disaster Warning: Global Challenges We Share As society becomes more complex we become more sensitive to natural and human induced variability, particularly along coast areas
WMO perspective on regarding global ocean observations IOC-WMO-UNEP-ICSU Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) –Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) coordinating implementation of the global component of GOOS JCOMM Observations Programme Area (OPA) Implementation Goals now taking into account –2010 update of the GCOS-IP (and satellite supplement) –Progress report on the GCOS-IP –Outcome of OceanOBS’09 (Venice, September 2009) –Outcome of WCC3 and developing GFCS –RRR and non-climate requirements (e.g. NWP, GCW, SIA, …)
Ocean Observation Panels Under JCOMM: –Data Buoy Cooperation Panel (DBCP) Drifters, tropical moorings, ice buoys 10 Action Groups –E-SURFMAR, IABP, IPAB, ISABP, IBPIO, NPDBAP, GDP, TIP, OceanSITES, ITP –Ship Observations Team (SOT) VOS (incl. VOSClim), ASAP, SOOP –Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) JCOMM having also links also with: Argo (profiling floats) OceanSITES (long-term deepwater reference stations) IOCCP (Ocean Carbon)
Issues Achieving global coverage by in situ networks –JCOMM OPA Implementation Goals – 62% completed –Integrated approach (complementarity of obs. Systems) –Ocean observations also used for –NWP, SIA –Ocean Mesoscale Forecast –Coastal marine services –Multi-harzard warning systems System-wide monitoring and performance reporting –JCOMM Metrics –WMO Rolling Review of Requirements (RRR) Funding to meet implementation targets
The Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) -III Ocean sub-surface variables For met-ocean applications, and in the latter part of the medium-range for GNWP (~7- 15 days) and for SIAF, the role of the sub-surface layers of the ocean becomes increasingly important, and hence observations of these variables, particularly temperature and salinity, become relevant. Argo is the major source of sub-surface temperature and salinity observations, providing global coverage to ~2000 m, mostly with acceptable-to-good spatial resolution, but only marginal temporal resolution in the tropics. The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO)/TRITON moored buoy network provides data of good frequency and accuracy, and acceptable spatial resolution, of sub-surface temperature for the tropical Pacific. The tropical moored networks in the Atlantic (PIRATA) and the Indian (RAMA) Oceans are better than marginal but do not yet have long-term commitment. The Ships-of-Opportunity Programme (SOOP) provides data of acceptable spatial resolution over some regions of the globe but temporal resolution is marginal. SOOP is evolving to provide enhanced temporal resolution along some specific lines. There will be a need for continuity of those measurements.
Major challenges in four Areas Data policy & sharing Quality and long-term consistence Historical Data Rescue New Observing Capability & Impact
Accuracy, Precision Representativeness Measurement traceability Long-time series stability Reducing uncertainty …… Ensure the quality of the observations to meet GFCS requirements, data rescue
New observations for ocean are needed urgently! Submarine cable: new opportunity for us The predictability of ENSO Seasonal climate predictions require information below the surface for many tens of metres depth, For decadal climate prediction, information from the full depth of the ocean may be needed.
The order of the top five and their contribution to error reduction is: AMSU-A (4 satellites) 17.2% IASI (one satellite) 12.0% AIRS (one satellite) 11.8% AIRREP (aircraft temperature and winds) 9.3% GPSRO (bending angles) 8.5% TEMP (radiosonde winds, humidity, and temperatures) 7.9% QuikSCAT (scatterometer surface winds over the oceans) 5.2% AIRS+IASI contribute to 23.8% error reduction 4 AMSU-A contribute to 17.2% error reduction RAOBs contribute to 7.9% error reduction WMO Impact Studies will give us the impact of the new observation to weather/climate services
Data and Products access and availability - Brief introduction to WMO Information System (WIS)
What is WIS? A catalogue of available data & products –Seamless discovery, access and retrieval of data and products (DAR) across all WMO systems, including collaborators and partners. A network to exchange data –Exchange of operational critical and time critical information as well as less critical and high volume data (GTS is an integral part of WIS) WIS serves all WMO programs and is open to partners outside –GOOS,GEOSS, HYCOS, WIGOS, GFCS,.. –Other UN organizations (FAO,WHO), research organizations, other partners Benefits of WIS –Data management inside WMO and inside Members will be improved. –This also increases the relevancy of WMO to other communities –Data remains under the data provider’s control
Information request to custodian http://weather.gmdss.org/I.html Search Results User searches for metadata then retrieves information from data custodian GISC – DAR service NC/DCPC information access service Centre publishes metadata to GISC DAR catalogue Security/authentication/authorization and even charging is managed by each service provider Retrieve information Search Request marine warnings in area bounded by 40W to 10W and 45N to 70N Search in WIS
Who am I? (NC,DCPC or GISC) National Centre? (NC) –Collect and/or produce national information –Typically a NMC Data Collection or Production Centre? (DCPC) –Collect and/or produce regional or thematic information or are a communications hub –centre with regional role (e.G GRUAN, Arctic Data centre, RCC) Global Information System Centres? (GISC) – Hold WMO metadata catalogue, 24hr cache of all GTS data, and act as core comm’s hub –Substantial technical and global/regional support commitment needed NCs and DCPCs are data (and metadata) providers. GICS are mere infrastructure centres. The same NMHS can implement several types of WIS centres
WIS virtual structure maps onto the GTS New virtual structure - Metadata is uploaded from NC & DCPC to GISC (using GTS or others means) - Data communication network comprises, but is not limited to the GTS (also internet, satellite, others) GTS structure remains in place for exchange of time-critical and operation-critical data and products NC NMC DCPC RTH/NMC GISC RTH
What is that status of WIS? WIS will become operational in Jan 2012, as affirmed by Cg XVI –Main infrastructure centres (GISC) in operational or pre- operational state in regions II,III,IV and VI as designated/noted by Cg. –Over 50 data providers (NC,DCPC) designated –Main task is to bring all WMO members and partners on board List of current WIS centres http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/WIS/centres/index_en.php Conclusion: WIS is one of the operational tools for us to access, disseminate, share and archive of our submarine cable observational data for supporting our research, operation and services.
The Vision of the WMO To provide world leadership in expertise and international co-operation in –Weather, –Climate, –Water, and –related environmental issues, and thereby to contribute to the safety and well being of people throughout the world and to the economic benefit of all nations.