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Chemical Equations Classifying, Predicting, Balancing

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To Write an Equation Given: reactants ? What to do: - Classify the reaction as one of 5 types - Based on how the reaction works, write what products will form - Balance the equation with coefficients

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Classifying Equations Synthesis A + B AB elem + elem compound Examples (unbalanced): Na + O 2 Na 2 O Mg + N 2 Mg 3 N 2 K + P K 3 P

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Classifying Equations Decomposition AB A + B compound elem + elem There are also other types of specific decomposition reactions carbonates: MCO 3 MO + CO 2 chlorates: MClO 3 MCl + O 2 Examples (unbalanced): NaCl Na + Cl 2 Na 2 CO 3 Na 2 O + CO 2 Fe 2 O 3 Fe + O 2 KClO 3 KCl + O 2 K 2 S K + S

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Classifying Equations Single Replacement A + BC AC + B A + BC BA + C elem + cmpd cmpd + elem Examples (unbalanced): Ca + HCl CaCl 2 + H 2 NaCl + F 2 NaF + Cl 2 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 + Li LiNO 3 + Sr

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Classifying Equations Double Replacement AB + CD AD + CB cmpd + cmpd cmpd + cmpd Examples (unbalanced): HCl + NaOH NaCl + HOH AgNO 3 + CaCl 2 AgCl + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Li 3 PO 4 + KNO 3 LiNO 3 + K 3 PO 4

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Classifying Equations Combustion of a hydrocarbon C_H_ + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O hydrocarbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Examples (unbalanced) C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 4 H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O

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Classifying Practice, Part 1 Classify the following reactions: Na + RbCl NaCl + Rb CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH 2HOH + Na 2 SO 4 NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 2NaCl 2Na + Cl 2 F 2 + 2LiCl 2LiF + Cl 2 AlCl 3 + KOH Al(OH) 3 + KCl Cl 2 + 2NaI 2NaCl + I 2 2Sn + O 2 2SnO 2HCl H 2 + Cl 2 2C 3 H 6 + 9O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O

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Classifying Practice, Part 2 Classify the following reactions: Cl 2 + LiBr NaCl + Ag 2 SO 4 C 2 H 4 + O 2 Na + RbBr KCl Ba + N 2 C 2 H 6 + O 2 AlF 3 + KOH HCl + NaOH Cl 2 + K I Fe + O 2 HF

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Predicting Products Based heavily in being able to write formulas. – element names = symbols from periodic table “silver” = Ag; “carbon” = C; “aluminum” = Al 7 diatomic elements: “hydrogen” = H 2 ; “nitrogen” = N 2 ; “oxygen” = O 2 ; “fluorine” = F 2 ; “chlorine” = Cl 2 ; “bromine” = Br 2 ; “iodine” = I 2 – ionic compounds: use charges to determine formula “sodium oxide” = Na +1 and O -2 = Na 2 O “barium nitrate” = Ba +2 and NO 3 -1 = Ba(NO 3 ) 2

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Predicting Products Must classify FIRST to know how reaction works. Use rules for writing compounds to figure out formulas for products Ca + O 2 KClO 3 MgSO 4 + Li NaOH + HCl C 3 H 8 + O 2

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Predicting Practice Classify the following reactions: Cl 2 + LiBr NaCl + Ag 2 SO 4 C 2 H 4 + O 2 Na + RbBr KCl Ba + N 2 C 2 H 6 + O 2 AlF 3 + KOH HCl + NaOH Cl 2 + K I Fe + O 2 HF

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Balancing Equations According to the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS: – # of atoms on each side of a reaction must be the same (conserved) ___ Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + ___ NaCl ___ NaNO 3 + ___ CaCl 2

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Wrap-Up To write a chemical equation: 1.Classify the equation according to the reactants 2.Predict what the products will be. Write their formulas according to rules of nomenclature (if in doubt, look for charges!) 3.Balance the entire equation with coefficients

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