# Force, Motion and Friction What is a force? “May the FORCE be with you.” “Wildcats Basketball Team is a FORCE to be reckoned with!” “That lightening.

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Force, Motion and Friction

What is a force? “May the FORCE be with you.” “Wildcats Basketball Team is a FORCE to be reckoned with!” “That lightening storm had a great deal of FORCE.” You have all heard the word force used in a sentence but what does it really mean? “May the FORCE be with you.” “Wildcats Basketball Team is a FORCE to be reckoned with!” “That lightening storm had a great deal of FORCE.” You have all heard the word force used in a sentence but what does it really mean?

In science a force is defined as a push or a pull!

About a force…  Unit of force is the NEWTON (N) – The force required to accelerate a mass of 1kg at a rate of 1m/s 2 – Gravity pulls on a mass of 100g (like an apple) with a force of 1N – A typical adult has a weight of about 670 N

A force has size and direction 50.5 N 10 N 1000 N 10002 N 20 N 5 N 2000 N 20 N

Forces acting on objects…  All forces act on objects. For any push to occur, something has to receive the push. YOU CAN’T PUSH NOTHING!  When you do school work you use your fingers to pull open a book or push buttons on a keyboard.

You can’t always see a force, but you can see it’s results.

Does a force acting upon an object mean that it will move? Think of what happens when you sit in your chair during science class. It does not move. Why?

Net Force  The combined forces acting on an object  Add if in the same direction  25 N  + 20 N  = 45 N   Subtract if in the opposite direction

Balanced and Unbalanced Forces  The net force tells you whether the forces on the object are balanced or unbalanced.  What do you think the forces on an object would have to equal (in Newtons) in order to have a BALANCED force?  If the forces on an object produce a NET FORCE of ZERO the forces are balanced!  The net force tells you whether the forces on the object are balanced or unbalanced.  What do you think the forces on an object would have to equal (in Newtons) in order to have a BALANCED force?  If the forces on an object produce a NET FORCE of ZERO the forces are balanced!

Examples of BALANCED FORCE If the net forces are balanced the object will not move.

Unbalanced Forces  When the net force on an object is not 0 N the force on the object is said to be UNBALANCED.  What happens to the object if the net force is not zero?  Can you think of an example of an unbalanced force?  When the net force on an object is not 0 N the force on the object is said to be UNBALANCED.  What happens to the object if the net force is not zero?  Can you think of an example of an unbalanced force?

Friction A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact.

Types of Friction Static friction: Kinetic friction: The force keeping 2 adjacent objects from moving. Sliding and Rolling: The force resisting the movement of one object sliding or rolling on another.

Kinetic Friction Friction between moving surfaces (roll vs. slide) Examples: brakes on a bike, writing with a pencil, scratch an itch! Almost all transportation is based on rolling kinetic friction (ie. Cars, trains, planes, bikes, skates)

Static Friction When a force is applied to an object but does not move! Forces are balance – if they become unbalanced, kinetic friction takes over

The direction of the friction force is in the opposite direction of the motion of the object.

What causes friction? When the hills and valleys of one surface stick to the hills and valleys of another surface, friction is created.

Helpful / Harmful Helpful: o Brakes o Writing o Walk and run Harmful: o Holes in your socks and jeans o Erosion o Wear and tear on equipment

Geckos – the ultimate in friction technology!

How geckos stick:

StickyBot

Reduce / Increase Reduce Friction by: o Lubricants (motor oil, wax, grease) o Switching from sliding to rolling kinetic friction o Make a smoother surface Increase Friction by: o Make surfaces rougher (sand on icy road or textured gloves for batting) o Pushing surfaces together (adding force) Sanding wood – press harder down as your rub and it will sand down faster due to added friction

Reducing friction Oil or other lubricant Ball bearings for axles Cartilage in joints

Friction Factors: If sliding object has more mass (hence more weight) = more friction (Surfaces are pressed together more) If surface is rougher / stickier = more friction Surface area… …does NOT affect friction

Friction

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