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Message Queues COMP3017 Advanced Databases Dr Nicholas Gibbins – 2012-2013.

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1 Message Queues COMP3017 Advanced Databases Dr Nicholas Gibbins – 2012-2013

2 Transactions Revisited 2 Complete units of work – ACID Transactions may be distributed across more than one processor –Dedicated link between programs –Operations synchronized –Distributed two phase commit Many transactions need not be completed synchronously –Communication must still be guaranteed –Work can be completed later

3 Synchronous versus Asynchronous 3 HTTP is a synchronous protocol –Request from client to server is followed by reply from server to client in the same TCP connection SMTP is an asynchronous protocol –Email messages are sent on a store-and-forward basis –Final message recipient need not be available when message is sent

4 Messaging and Queuing (MQ) 4 MQ enables programs to communicate across a network asynchronously –No private, dedicated link required –Systems can be heterogeneous –Message delivery is guaranteed Messages are placed on queues by one system and taken off by another –Similar idea to email, but more sophisticated mechanism MQ can also be used between programs running on the same system

5 Direct Transaction Processing 5 Conventional (direct) transaction processing has weaknesses: –Designed for synchronous processing –Has difficulties with long-lived transactions and communication errors –Difficult to balance loads between several servers carrying out the same tasks –Difficult to prioritise one request over another

6 6 If server is down, client does not receive an immediate answer Cannot distinguish between: –request not delivered to server –server failure –reply not delivered to client Direct TP Problems: Server Failure ClientServer

7 7 Cannot tell if response has been received by client Direct TP Problems: Client Failure ClientServer

8 8 Cannot ensure that servers carrying out a task have an even load Direct TP Problems: Unbalanced Load Server 1 Server 2Server 3 requests

9 9 Tasks handled on a first-come, first-served basis; cannot process high-priority requests early Direct TP Problems: No Prioritisation Server ! requests urgent request

10 10 Client adds request to queue (enqueues) Server removes request from queue (dequeues) If server is unavailable (busy, down, disconnected), the request is stored in the queue until the server is able to process it Message Queues ClientServer message queue enqueue request dequeue request

11 11 Bidirectional communication between client and server requires a separate queue for communications in each direction Bidirectional Queues ClientServer request queue enqueue request dequeue request reply queue enqueue reply dequeue reply

12 12 Communication may be one-to-many Communication may be many-to-one Application Structure Client Server message queue Server Client message queue Server Client

13 13 When a server finishes processing a request, it takes the next from the queue Load Balancing ClientServer message queue enqueue dequeue ClientServer

14 Queued Transaction Processing 14 transaction start dequeue(request queue) process request enqueue(reply queue) commit request queue reply queue

15 Queued Transaction Processing 15 If transaction aborts: –request returned to input queue –changes made by transaction are rolled back –if necessary, reply removed from output queue Repeated aborts (due to a poisoned message) may be prevented with a maximum limit on retries

16 Queued Transaction Processing 16 transaction 1: submit request start construct request enqueue(request queue) commit transaction 3: process reply start dequeue(reply queue) process output commit transaction 2: execute request start dequeue(request queue) process request enqueue(reply queue) commit client server request queue reply queue

17 Message Ordering 17 Description of message queues so far does not consider how messages are ordered in a queue –First-come, first-served –Highest-priority-first Aborted transactions may lead to out-of-order processing: –T1 dequeues M1 –T2 dequeues M2 –T2 commits –T1 aborts, returns M1 to queue

18 Benefits Simple APIs hide communications complexity Fewer constraints on inter-program operation –Programs communicate indirectly – asynchronous –Client and server do not need to be running at the same time Fewer network sessions needed, and programs are less vulnerable to network failures Business change easier to handle Assured message delivery Asynchronous transaction processing 18

19 Implementations and Standards Message Queuing is not a new idea! –Used for, example, within IBM's Information Management System (IMS) 30 years ago Both proprietary and open source APIs and platforms –IBM Websphere MQ, Microsoft Message Queuing, Oracle Advanced Queuing –Apache ActiveMQ, Rabbit MQ Some products inter-operate via common standards –AMQP, MQTT 19

20 Example 1: Client-Server Applications 20 Insurance agents throughout the country request insurance quotations using an online system. This system is implemented as a traditional client-server application, with client programs (the insurance agents) sending requests for quotations to a central server program. The server does some calculations using data from a central insurance database, then sends a quotation to the requesting agent.

21 21 Client programs put request messages on a single queue, from which the server program takes them. Responses may be sent back to clients via extra message queues (one per client) Example 1: Client-Server Applications Insurance Agent message queue Insurance Quotation Insurance Agent Insurance Agent insurance data

22 Example 2: Output-only Devices 22 A device providing a service is output-only, and does not send messages back to the requester. Only one-way message flows are required. Output-only devices: –Printing devices –Displays:- Stock exchange, Flight arrivals and departures –Factory floor robotics

23 23 Robotics Controller is in control of an automated manufacturing process. It puts messages on: –Queue 1 for the Robotics A program, which directs some welding machinery, and on –Queue 2 for the Robotics B program, which controls a paint sprayer. Example 2: Output-only Devices Robotics Controller Robotics A Robotics B queue 1 queue 2

24 Example 3: The Batch Window 24 A department store writes its sales figures to a file throughout the day ’ s trading. Overnight, a report of the day’s sales is produced using this file of data as input. The report must be on the Sales Manager’s desk before the next day ’ s trading begins. – The amount of time available for producing the report is limited to the “ window ” of time between the end of business on one day and the start of business on the next –The start and finish times for the activity are fixed

25 25 Instead of operating in sequence and communicating via a file, the two programs could run independently of each other and communicate using a message queue Example 3: The Batch Window Sales Recording Sales Reporting message queue

26 Summary Message queuing allows an alternative way to distribute applications Many applications involve databases, so the technologies intersect Conceptually and practically, MQ is often a more straightforward approach than direct connections between systems, and synchronous transaction processing 26

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