Presentation on theme: "Organizing the Elements"— Presentation transcript:
1Organizing the Elements Atomic Mass: the average mass of the isotopes (same element but different number of neutrons) of that elementMendeleev original arrangement: increasing atomic mass- found that properties of the elements repeatedPeriodic table: arrangement of elements – because of repetition of propertiesMendeleev predicted properties of elements not yet discoveredModern arrangement of periodic table- increasing atomic number
2Understanding the Atomic Structure Parts of the atom: nucleus – protons +, neutrons 0, outside nucleus- electrons –Atomic number: number of protons- every atom of a particular element has its unique number of protonsProtons and neutrons have the same mass (make up most of the mass of the atom)Electrons are not nearly as massive as the protons and neutrons
3Information found in the Periodic Table Atomic number (number of protons)Chemical symbol (abbreviation of name)NameAtomic mass (average mass of all isotopes of that element)
4Periodic Table Made up of: Rows called Periods ( 7 periods)- similar characteristicsColumns called Groups/ Families (18 groups)
5Periodic TableProperties can be predicted based of location in periodic tableMetals( left), nonmetals (right), metalloids (between)
6Properties Change (left to right) Majority of elements are metalsGood conductors of electricity and heatPhysical PropertiesLuster: high luster= shinny and reflectiveMalleability= ability to bend= can be hammered and rolled into flat sheetsDuctility: can be drawn into long wiresConductivity: thermal- ability to transfer heat and electrical- ability to carry electric currentChemical Properties :Reactivity: the ease and speed with which an element reacts with other substances. React by losing electronsCorrosion: deterioration of metals due to a chemical reaction in the environment
8Classification of Metals Alkali Metals( group 1)- most reactive never found uncombined in nature, soft, low densities, low melting pointsAlkali Earth Metals (group 2)- never found uncombined in nature- reactive but not as reactive as group 1) harder, denser and melt at higher temperatures than alkaliTransitions Metals (groups 3-12) hard and shinny solids, high melting points and high densities, less reactive than group 1 and 2Some of the elements in groups are metalsMetals in Mixed GroupsLanthanidesActinides
9Lanthanide and Actinide Metals two rows below main part of periodic table
10Transuranium those that follow uranium- atomic number above 95 unstable- decay radioactively into other elements
11Periodic TableWhich of these elements has properties most similar to Magnesium: Sodium, Calcium, or Manganese? How do you know?SC.8.P.8.6
12Properties of Nonmetals Lacks most of the properties of a metalRight side of periodic table (exception: hydrogen)Wider variety of properties- few in commonMost are poor conductors of electric and current and heat.Solid nonmetals tend to be dull and brittleLower densities than metalsChemical properties- usually gain or share electrons when they react with other atoms
13Families Nonmetals Group 1 Groups 14-18 Carbon family, nitrogen family, oxygen family, the halogen family, noble gases and hydrogen
14Nonmetals Group 14- carbon is the only nonmetal Nitrogen family- 2 nonmetals – nitrogen (diatomic- two of the same atoms bonded together) and phosphorusOxygen family- 3 nonmetals- oxygen, sulfur and seleniumHalogens( group 17)- nonmetals- fluorine, bromine, chlorine, and iodine- very reactive; fluorine most reactive of all elementsNoble gas- group 18- nonreactiveHydrogen- cannot be grouped- very different properties than any other element
15MetalloidsElements that have some properties of metals and some of nonmetalsSolid at room temperatureBrittle, hard and somewhat reactiveSilicone, germanium and arsenic – semiconductors- substances that can conduct electric current under some conditions but not under others
16Acids, Bases, and SaltsWhich substances reacted with baking soda to create a gas? Why?Acids and BasesWhat is created when a base (alkali) is added to an acid?Can do one or both simulations. 1st simulation does not refer to salts at all. 2nd simulation refers to metals as bases and says that strong bases are corrosive which may be confusing but most of it is very good information so it can be overlooked.SC.8.P.8.8
18BenchmarksSC.7.P.10.1: Students will identify, compare and contrast the variety of types of radiation present in radiation from the Sun.SC.8.E.5.11: Students will identify and compare characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum. Students will identify common uses and applications of electromagnetic waves.
19Heating Damaging Coloring Sun’s RadiationHeatingDamagingColoringWhich word above relates to each of the types of Solar radiation: Infrared, Visible Light, and Ultraviolet?SC.7.P.10.1
20Electromagnetic Spectrum BWhich wave image (A or B) is accurate? Using the terms “wavelength” and “frequency” describe the trends in the waves within the EM Spectrum.SC.8.E.5.11
22BenchmarksSC.7.P.10.3: Students will describe and explain that waves move at different speeds through different materials.SC.7.P.10.2: Students will explain that light waves can be reflected, refracted, and absorbed.
23Speed of WavesLight WaveWhat happens to the speed of the light as it travels from the air, through the glass, and then through the water?SC.7.P.10.3
24Reflect, Refract, Absorb Label the images above with the correct term concerning the motion of light waves. Explain your choicesSC.7.P.10.2
25Transformation of Energy Physical ScienceTransformation of Energy
26BenchmarksSC.7.P.11.2: Students will identify and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another.SC.6.P.11.1: Students will differentiate between potential and kinetic energy. Students will identify and explain situations where energy is transformed between kinetic energy and potential energy.SC.7.P.11.3: Students will identify and describe examples of the Law of Conservation of Energy.
27Transformation of Energy Energy TransformationThink about:What are some examples of each type of energy (chemical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, light, and nuclear)?Good over all review of energy but gets into Renewable resources, Heat flow, etc… so save for laterSC.7.P.11.2
28Potential vs Kinetic Energy Energy in a Skate ParkThink about:When is the skater’s potential energy the greatest? Where is the potential energy being transformed into kinetic energy?SC.6.P.11.1
29Law of Conservation of Energy Energy of SpringsThink about:What happens to the Total Energy as the spring bounces? Which types of energy make up the total energy? How to they relate to each other?Be sure to click on “Show Energy of” buttons so students can see the bar graphsSC.7.P.11.3
31BenchmarksSC.7.P.11.4: Students will describe how heat flows in predictable ways.SC.7.P.11.1: Students will explain that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.
32Heat FlowBACLabel the examples of heat flow above as either radiation, conduction, or convection. Explain your choicesSC.7.P.11.4
33Adding and Removing Heat Changing StateThink about:When you “cool” the beaker, are you adding cold or removing heat? ExplainSC.7.P.11.1
34Types of Forces Mass and Weight Physical ScienceTypes of ForcesMass and Weight
35BenchmarksSC.6.P.13.1: Students will identify and describe types of forces.SC.6.P.13.2: Students will describe the relationship among distance, mass, and gravitational force between any two objects.SC.8.P.8.2: Students will differentiate between mass and weight
36Types of Forces Forces Think about: What force works against an object traveling horizontally? What kind of force (balanced or unbalanced) changes an object’s motion?Previews the next two slides as wellSC.6.P.13.1
37Distance, Mass, and Gravity Gravity ModelThink about:What happens to the direction and magnitude of the force of gravity as you change the distance and/or masses?SC.6.P.13.2
38Weight vs MassAn object is placed on the digital scale and spring scale below and the following readings are observed9.5g93.1 NWhich instrument is measuring the object’s mass and which is measuring the object’s weight? Why are the numbers different? Explain your thinkingSC.8.P.8.2
39Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Physical ScienceBalanced and Unbalanced Forces
40BenchmarksSC.6.P.13.3: Students will describe and explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed and/or direction.SC.6.P.12.1: Students will interpret and analyze graphs of distance and time for an object moving at a constant speed.
41Unbalanced Forces Unbalanced Forces Think about: In order for the object to move, which force had to be overcome?Simulation has a LOT of extras, can keep it very simple or go more in depth as neededSC.6.P.13.3
42Distance vs TimeBCATechnically benchmark is only for constant speed so C is not entirely appropriate, but it would be good to see if the students KNOW that C is not constant speed.Describe the motion of the object during each section.SC.6.P.12.1