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Organizing the Elements

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Presentation on theme: "Organizing the Elements"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizing the Elements
Atomic Mass: the average mass of the isotopes (same element but different number of neutrons) of that element Mendeleev original arrangement: increasing atomic mass- found that properties of the elements repeated Periodic table: arrangement of elements – because of repetition of properties Mendeleev predicted properties of elements not yet discovered Modern arrangement of periodic table- increasing atomic number

2 Understanding the Atomic Structure
Parts of the atom: nucleus – protons +, neutrons 0, outside nucleus- electrons – Atomic number: number of protons- every atom of a particular element has its unique number of protons Protons and neutrons have the same mass (make up most of the mass of the atom) Electrons are not nearly as massive as the protons and neutrons

3 Information found in the Periodic Table
Atomic number (number of protons) Chemical symbol (abbreviation of name) Name Atomic mass (average mass of all isotopes of that element)

4 Periodic Table Made up of:
Rows called Periods ( 7 periods)- similar characteristics Columns called Groups/ Families (18 groups)

5 Periodic Table Properties can be predicted based of location in periodic table Metals( left), nonmetals (right), metalloids (between)

6 Properties Change (left to right)
Majority of elements are metals Good conductors of electricity and heat Physical Properties Luster: high luster= shinny and reflective Malleability= ability to bend= can be hammered and rolled into flat sheets Ductility: can be drawn into long wires Conductivity: thermal- ability to transfer heat and electrical- ability to carry electric current Chemical Properties : Reactivity: the ease and speed with which an element reacts with other substances. React by losing electrons Corrosion: deterioration of metals due to a chemical reaction in the environment

7 Chemical Families/Groups

8 Classification of Metals
Alkali Metals( group 1)- most reactive never found uncombined in nature, soft, low densities, low melting points Alkali Earth Metals (group 2)- never found uncombined in nature- reactive but not as reactive as group 1) harder, denser and melt at higher temperatures than alkali Transitions Metals (groups 3-12) hard and shinny solids, high melting points and high densities, less reactive than group 1 and 2 Some of the elements in groups are metals Metals in Mixed Groups Lanthanides Actinides

9 Lanthanide and Actinide Metals
two rows below main part of periodic table

10 Transuranium those that follow uranium- atomic number above 95
unstable- decay radioactively into other elements

11 Periodic Table Which of these elements has properties most similar to Magnesium: Sodium, Calcium, or Manganese? How do you know? SC.8.P.8.6

12 Properties of Nonmetals
Lacks most of the properties of a metal Right side of periodic table (exception: hydrogen) Wider variety of properties- few in common Most are poor conductors of electric and current and heat. Solid nonmetals tend to be dull and brittle Lower densities than metals Chemical properties- usually gain or share electrons when they react with other atoms

13 Families Nonmetals Group 1 Groups 14-18
Carbon family, nitrogen family, oxygen family, the halogen family, noble gases and hydrogen

14 Nonmetals Group 14- carbon is the only nonmetal
Nitrogen family- 2 nonmetals – nitrogen (diatomic- two of the same atoms bonded together) and phosphorus Oxygen family- 3 nonmetals- oxygen, sulfur and selenium Halogens( group 17)- nonmetals- fluorine, bromine, chlorine, and iodine- very reactive; fluorine most reactive of all elements Noble gas- group 18- nonreactive Hydrogen- cannot be grouped- very different properties than any other element

15 Metalloids Elements that have some properties of metals and some of nonmetals Solid at room temperature Brittle, hard and somewhat reactive Silicone, germanium and arsenic – semiconductors- substances that can conduct electric current under some conditions but not under others

16 Acids, Bases, and Salts Which substances reacted with baking soda to create a gas? Why? Acids and Bases What is created when a base (alkali) is added to an acid? Can do one or both simulations. 1st simulation does not refer to salts at all. 2nd simulation refers to metals as bases and says that strong bases are corrosive which may be confusing but most of it is very good information so it can be overlooked. SC.8.P.8.8

17 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Physical Science Electromagnetic Spectrum

18 Benchmarks SC.7.P.10.1: Students will identify, compare and contrast the variety of types of radiation present in radiation from the Sun. SC.8.E.5.11: Students will identify and compare characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum. Students will identify common uses and applications of electromagnetic waves.

19 Heating Damaging Coloring
Sun’s Radiation Heating Damaging Coloring Which word above relates to each of the types of Solar radiation: Infrared, Visible Light, and Ultraviolet? SC.7.P.10.1

20 Electromagnetic Spectrum
B Which wave image (A or B) is accurate? Using the terms “wavelength” and “frequency” describe the trends in the waves within the EM Spectrum. SC.8.E.5.11

21 Physical Science Waves

22 Benchmarks SC.7.P.10.3: Students will describe and explain that waves move at different speeds through different materials. SC.7.P.10.2: Students will explain that light waves can be reflected, refracted, and absorbed.

23 Speed of Waves Light Wave What happens to the speed of the light as it travels from the air, through the glass, and then through the water? SC.7.P.10.3

24 Reflect, Refract, Absorb
Label the images above with the correct term concerning the motion of light waves. Explain your choices SC.7.P.10.2

25 Transformation of Energy
Physical Science Transformation of Energy

26 Benchmarks SC.7.P.11.2: Students will identify and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another. SC.6.P.11.1: Students will differentiate between potential and kinetic energy. Students will identify and explain situations where energy is transformed between kinetic energy and potential energy. SC.7.P.11.3: Students will identify and describe examples of the Law of Conservation of Energy.

27 Transformation of Energy
Energy Transformation Think about: What are some examples of each type of energy (chemical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, light, and nuclear)? Good over all review of energy but gets into Renewable resources, Heat flow, etc… so save for later SC.7.P.11.2

28 Potential vs Kinetic Energy
Energy in a Skate Park Think about: When is the skater’s potential energy the greatest? Where is the potential energy being transformed into kinetic energy? SC.6.P.11.1

29 Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy of Springs Think about: What happens to the Total Energy as the spring bounces? Which types of energy make up the total energy? How to they relate to each other? Be sure to click on “Show Energy of” buttons so students can see the bar graphs SC.7.P.11.3

30 Physical Science Heat Flow

31 Benchmarks SC.7.P.11.4: Students will describe how heat flows in predictable ways. SC.7.P.11.1: Students will explain that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.

32 Heat Flow B A C Label the examples of heat flow above as either radiation, conduction, or convection. Explain your choices SC.7.P.11.4

33 Adding and Removing Heat
Changing State Think about: When you “cool” the beaker, are you adding cold or removing heat? Explain SC.7.P.11.1

34 Types of Forces Mass and Weight
Physical Science Types of Forces Mass and Weight

35 Benchmarks SC.6.P.13.1: Students will identify and describe types of forces. SC.6.P.13.2: Students will describe the relationship among distance, mass, and gravitational force between any two objects. SC.8.P.8.2: Students will differentiate between mass and weight

36 Types of Forces Forces Think about:
What force works against an object traveling horizontally? What kind of force (balanced or unbalanced) changes an object’s motion? Previews the next two slides as well SC.6.P.13.1

37 Distance, Mass, and Gravity
Gravity Model Think about: What happens to the direction and magnitude of the force of gravity as you change the distance and/or masses? SC.6.P.13.2

38 Weight vs Mass An object is placed on the digital scale and spring scale below and the following readings are observed 9.5g 93.1 N Which instrument is measuring the object’s mass and which is measuring the object’s weight? Why are the numbers different? Explain your thinking SC.8.P.8.2

39 Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
Physical Science Balanced and Unbalanced Forces

40 Benchmarks SC.6.P.13.3: Students will describe and explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed and/or direction. SC.6.P.12.1: Students will interpret and analyze graphs of distance and time for an object moving at a constant speed.

41 Unbalanced Forces Unbalanced Forces Think about:
In order for the object to move, which force had to be overcome? Simulation has a LOT of extras, can keep it very simple or go more in depth as needed SC.6.P.13.3

42 Distance vs Time B C A Technically benchmark is only for constant speed so C is not entirely appropriate, but it would be good to see if the students KNOW that C is not constant speed. Describe the motion of the object during each section. SC.6.P.12.1

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