2 1. What forces are involved in making a hot air balloon move?
3 1. Up and Down Forces Lift pushes the balloon up against the downward force ofgravity.Lift is due to the density insidethe balloon being lower thanThe density outside of theballoon (Called Buoyant Force).
4 1. Side to Side ForcesA turbine or the wind pushes the balloon forward (sideways) against the backward force of air resistance (air friction, or drag)
5 2. What happens when the forces acting on a hot air balloon are balanced? What happens when they are unbalanced?
6 2. Balanced forcesWhen forces are balanced, an object has constant speed.It can be a constant speedof zero (not moving).
7 2. Unbalanced Forces When the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object speeds up orslows down.
8 3. What was the role of gravity in the formation of our solar system? Matter was pulled to the center of the solar system in a swirling motion. The sun ignited from the friction of the matter in the center. The denser particles around the sun formed the rocky planets. The lighter particles formed the gas giant planets farther out.Spinning Cloud
10 3. What factors affect the force of gravity? The amount of mass: The more massive the object, the stronger the force of gravity.The distance between objects: The farther apart two objects are, the less the force of gravity.
11 3. How does gravity affect mass and weight? The more mass an object has, the greater the force of gravity on the object.Weight is a measurement ofhow gravity pulls on anobject with mass.
12 4. How are physical traits inherited from one generation to the next? The instructions for building proteins, which are the building blocks of cells, are controlled by genes. Genes express physical traits like eye color, and height. There are thousands of genes in our DNA. Genes
13 4. How are genes selected?Asexual reproduction makes a complete copy of the parent’s DNA. So every child is a clone of the parent. The only variation in genes comes from mutation.Sexual reproduction has two parents. Each parent offers one piece of a gene (an allele). The combination of all the pieces forms a complete set of genes for the child. Children have different combinations of genes than the parents.
14 4. Dominant or Recessive Genes Some alleles are stronger than others. These are called dominant. Two dominant alleles express a dominant trait (homozygous dominant express brown eyes)Alleles that are weaker can hide behind dominant traits. If you have one dominant and one recessive trait, the dominant trait is expressed (heterozygous still express brown eyes)If you have two recessive alleles, than the recessive trait will be expressed (homozygous recessive will show blue eyes)
15 5. What factors affect the survival and change (evolution) of a species over time? Organisms compete for Limited Resources like food and water.Organisms with the best adaptations will survive and make babies (pass on their genes). If you can’t get food, you die, and so do your genes.The environment is always changing. Organisms need to adjust to the changing environment.Sexual Reproduction means having a better chance to pass on adapting genes because they are always mixed up.
16 5. What factors affect the survival and change (evolution) of a species over time? Giraffe
17 6. What factors have caused Earth to evolve over geologic times? Plates
18 6. What factors have caused Earth to evolve over geologic times? Heat that is generated in Earth’s core radiates outward and liquefies the mantle.The mantle transfers energy through convection—hot liquid is less dense and floats up, cools off and becomes more dense then sinks to the bottom again.The flowing liquid moves the lithosphere (the Earth’s plates). As the Earth’s plates move, the continents shift into new places.Over millions of years the continents and oceans have moved and changed shape many times.
19 7. What are some similarities and differences between elements, compounds, and mixtures? Elements are made of only one type of atom. They cannot be broken down into different substances. There are about 118.Compounds are different types of atoms that have been chemically combined together. There are millions of different compounds.Mixtures are made of elements and compounds that have not been chemically combined together. There are millions of mixtures.
20 7. What are some similarities and differences between elements, compounds, and mixtures? Both elements and compounds are pure substances—you cannot separate them without complicated chemical processes. Mixtures can be separated, because they are not chemically combined, but sometimes it is very difficult to do so. Pure Substances vs Mixtures
21 8. What characteristics are used to classify stars? Stars are classified by1. Size2. Temperature (Color)3. Absolute Magnitude(Actual Brightness)4. ChemicalComposition
22 9. What characteristics are used to classify organisms? Organisms are classified together based on similar charateristics.There are 3 Domains of organisms:1. Archaebacteria—prokaryotic (no nucleus)extremophiles (live in extreme environments)2. Eubacteria—prokaryotic (no nucleus) not extremophiles (live in normal places)3. Eukaryotes—eukaryotic (with a nucleus) four kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
23 9. What characteristics are used to classify organisms?
24 9. What characteristics are used to classify organisms? Kingdoms are classified by 3 things. Cell type, number of cells, how organisms eat.1. Protista: Eukaryotic, one to many cells, make or eat food.2. Fungi: Eukaryotic, one to many cells, absorb food3. Plantae: Eukaryotic, many-celled, make food4. Animalia: Eukaryotic, many-celled, eats food
25 9. What characteristics are used to classify organisms?
26 10. How should a scientist confirm that an experiment has good (valid and reliable) data? Every experiment should have:Repetition—multiple trials by the same scientistReplication—experiment should be repeated by other scientists to verify results.