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Discovery of Structural Variation with Next-Generation Sequencing Alexandre Gillet-Markowska Gilles Fischer Team – Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "Discovery of Structural Variation with Next-Generation Sequencing Alexandre Gillet-Markowska Gilles Fischer Team – Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovery of Structural Variation with Next-Generation Sequencing Alexandre Gillet-Markowska Gilles Fischer Team – Biology of Genomes UMR7238 Laboratory of Computational and Quantitative Biology Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris

2 (i)Structural variations (SV) (ii) SV detection technologies (iii) Read pairs: 2 types of Illumina genomic DNA libraries (iv) SV detection using Read pairs (v) Polymorphic SV Structural Variations (SV) outline

3 1 Yes, the minimal size is arbitrary… 1 Structural Variations (SV)

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8 INVERSION (INV)RECIPROCAL TRANSLOCATION (RT) INSERTION (INS) DELETION (DEL) ref SV ref SV Balanced SV Unbalanced SV (CNV) Intrachromosomal SVInterchromosomal SV ref SV ref SV TANDEM DUPLICATION (DUP) Balanced SV versus Unbalanced SV Pictures adapted from Feuk et al., 2006 Nature Reviews Calvin Blackman Bridges, Science

9 Why Discover SV ?  involved in > 30 diseases (Psoriasis, Crohn disease, ASD…)  chromosomal instability detected in the vast majority of cancers  powerful mechanism of adaptation and evolution

10 SV detection technologies

11 Calvin Blackman Bridges, Science Timeline of technologies used to discover SV SV, Structural Variations since Lejeune, Study of somatic chromosomes from 9 mongoloid children, Hebd Seances Acad Sci 1959 Smith et al, Interstitial deletion of (17)(p11.2p11.2) in nine patients. Am J Med Genet 1986 Comparative cytogenetics

12 Calvin Blackman Bridges, Science 200 et 221 CNV 360 Mb CNVR (12% du génome humain) 1936 Lejeune, Study of somatic chromosomes from 9 mongoloid children, Hebd Seances Acad Sci 1959 Smith et al, Interstitial deletion of (17)(p11.2p11.2) in nine patients. Am J Med Genet 1986 Iafrate, Detection of large-scale variation in the human genome, Nature Sebat, Large-scale copy number polymorphism in the human genome, Science 2004 Redon, Global variation in copy number in the human genome, Nature 2006 Comparative cytogenetics Microarrays Timeline of technologies used to discover SV SV, Structural Variations since 1936

13 Calvin Blackman Bridges, Science 200 et 221 CNV 360 Mb CNVR (12% du génome humain) Microarrays Korbel et al, Paired-end mapping reveals extensive structural variation in the human genome, Science NGS 1936 Lejeune, Study of somatic chromosomes from 9 mongoloid children, Hebd Seances Acad Sci 1959 Smith et al, Interstitial deletion of (17)(p11.2p11.2) in nine patients. Am J Med Genet 1986 Iafrate, Detection of large-scale variation in the human genome, Nature Sebat, Large-scale copy number polymorphism in the human genome, Science 2004 Redon, Global variation in copy number in the human genome, Nature HGP, A map of human genome variation from population-scale sequencing, Nature SV SV Comparative cytogenetics Timeline of technologies used to discover SV SV, Structural Variations since 1936

14 ‘Range of usability’ of technologies  Size limit  SV type limit

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16 SV detection with NGS data

17 Breakpoints res. SV size range CNV Balanced SV FDR Missing rate >100 bp > Insert Size Yes Variable Quinlan & Hall 2011 Trends in Genetics LI 2011 Nature 1 bp 1 bp–50 kbp Yes >10% >25% 1-10 bp >10 bp Yes No High? 1 bp >1 bp Yes low High? How to detect SV with NGS data ?

18 Read pairs: 2 types of Illumina genomic DNA libraries 1) Illumina Paired-End 2) Illumina Mate-Pair

19 1) Illumina Paired-End

20 2) Illumina Mate-Pair

21 Illumina Paired end vs Mate-Pair (MP allows a better genome assembly than PE) MP allows to detect SV that involve repeated elements

22 Illumina Paired end vs Mate-Pair Insert-size distribution of 100,000 read-pairs Insert-size (bp) 5,000 (or much less…)

23 Illumina Paired end vs Mate-Pair

24 SV detection with Read pairs 1)trim the data 2)align data to reference genome 3)remove PCR duplicates 4)SV calling

25 Trim the data First criteria: Chargaff rule

26 Trim the data First criteria : %A = %T and %G = %C on both DNA strands

27 Trim the data Second criteria: nucleotide quality Bcbio-nextgen Btrim CANGS Chipster Clean reads ConDeTri Ea-utils Fastx Flexbar PRINSEQ Reaper SeqTrim Skewer SolexaQA TagCleaner Trimmomatic Trimming tools

28 Align the data to reference genome

29 Remove PCR duplicates samtools rmdup (only intra-molecular duplicates) markduplicates.jar (picard tools) FastUniq … PCR duplicates annotation tools

30 SV signatures SV have nearly identical signatures with MP and PE

31 SV signatures Gillet-Markowska, 2014, Bioinformatics

32 SV signatures

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34 Inter-tool variability is immense

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36 Adapted from ICGC-TCGA challenge

37 Inter-tool variability is immense

38 SV examples

39 Korbel et al, Science 2007 SV in the Human genome

40 Not-so-identical monozygotic twins Bruder, C. E. G. et al. Phenotypically concordant and discordant monozygotic twins display different DNA copy-number-variation profiles. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 82, 763–771 (2008)

41 Butterfly mimicry

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43 Livestock phenotypes caused by CNV

44 Polymorphic SV Structural Variations (SV)

45 Individual (germ line) SV in 100% of cells of each individual Tissue (somatic) SV in one tissue / in a few cells Polymorphic SV Structural Variations (SV)

46 #generation Bottleneck Bottleneck 2Bottleneck 3Bottleneck 4Bottleneck 5 Bottleneck #cells Sequencing a single culture Can we detect de novo SV occurring in a single cell culture by high throughput sequencing ? DNA extraction Sequencing (n=80) DNA extraction Sequencing The physical coverage (theoretically) sets the detection threshold S. cerevisiae 30 # generations # cells ,000X 700X

47 Pair-End sequencing: insert size ~ 400 bp Sequencing with high physical coverage Reference Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10

48 Pair-End sequencing: insert size ~ 400 bp Sequencing with high physical coverage Reference Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10

49 Pair-End sequencing: insert size ~ 400 bp Sequencing with high physical coverage Coverage (sequence) cov seq = 0.5X Reference Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10

50 Pair-End sequencing: insert size ~ 400 bp Sequencing with high physical coverage Coverage (sequence) cov seq = 0.5X cov phys = 0.85X Coverage (physical) Reference Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10

51 Pair-End sequencing: insert size ~ 400 bp Sequencing with high physical coverage Coverage (sequence) cov seq = 0.5X cov SV = 0 Reference Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10 cov phys = 0.85X Coverage (physical)

52 Mate Pair sequencing: insert size ~ 1 to 20 kb Sequencing with high physical coverage Reference Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10 Discordant Paired Sequence

53 Mate Pair sequencing: insert size ~ 1 to 20 kb Sequencing with high physical coverage Reference Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell cov seq = 0.5X cov phys = 5X Coverage (sequence) Coverage (physical) cov SV = 1 Discordant Paired Sequence Mate Pair sequencing increases the sensitivity of SV detection

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56 Illumina Paired-End

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