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Forces and Newton’s Laws NOTES Force - a push or pull A Force 1. gives energy to objects 2. causes a change in motion, such as: Starting Speeding Up Changing Direction Stopping Slowing Down (Note: all of these are forms of acceleration)

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3. May change an object's shape 4. Forces can be represented with arrows called vectors. Vectors show the direction and magnitude (size) of a force. 5. Forces are measured in Newtons (N). N = m/s 2 Tool used is a spring scale Click me!

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1.Balanced forces are equal forces No movement or change in movement occurs Net force is zero EX: MM All of the forces acting on an object together are known as net forces. 2.Unbalanced forces are unequal forces Some change in movement occurs Net force is greater than zero EX:

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Sources of Force 1.Gravity is a force that pulls objects down— dependent on size of object and distance. (Gravity is acceleration.) 2.Weight is the force of gravity on mass. Weight changes if gravity changes; mass does not change with gravity.

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Newton's Laws of Motion Forces can be described with Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion. 1.First Law - Law of Inertia An object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. A moving object moves in a straight line with constant speed unless a force acts on it. An object's tendency to resist a change in motion is inertia. If it is at rest, it stays at rest. If it is moving, it keeps moving in the same direction.

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Objects do not change their motion unless a force acts on them An object will NOT start moving unless a force acts on it. An object will NOT stop moving unless a force acts on it. An object will NOT change speed unless a force acts on it. An object will NOT change direction unless a force acts on it. The more mass an object has, the more inertia it has. This means that the more mass an object has, the harder it is to move, stop, or change the speed or direction of the object.

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Don’t let this be you. Wear seat belts! Because of inertia, objects (including you) resist changes in their motion. When the car going 80 km/hour is stopped by the brick wall, your body keeps moving at 80 m/hour.

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2.Second Law - Law of Acceleration Forces causes acceleration while mass resists acceleration. If an object is acted upon by a net force, the change in velocity will be in the direction of the force. (Objects move in the direction they are pushed or pulled.) Mass, force, and acceleration are related. The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.

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Acceleration can be calculated as: Acceleration = force/mass a = F/m or Force = mass X acceleration Example: You are pushing a friend on a sled. You push with a force of 40 N. Your friend and the sled together have a mass of 80 kg. Ignoring friction, what is the acceleration of your friend on the sled?

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The more mass an object has, the more force is needed to accelerate the object. Small masses are easy to accelerate. Big masses are hard to accelerate. The more force that is applied to an object the more it will accelerate.

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What is the acceleration of the dog sled? Unbalanced or balanced?

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Notice that doubling the force by adding another dog doubles the acceleration. Oppositely, doubling the mass to 100 kg would halve the acceleration to 2 m/s 2. Unbalanced or balanced?

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If two dogs are on each side, then the total force pulling to the left (200 N) balances the total force pulling to the right (200 N). That means the net force on the sled is zero, so the sled doesn’t move.

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For example: Hitting a baseball—the harder the hit, the faster the ball goes. The positioning of football players—massive players on the line with lighter (faster to accelerate) players in the backfield Flicking a ping pong ball vs. a bowling ball (OUCH!)

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Newton’s 2 nd Law proves that different masses accelerate to the earth at the same rate, but with different forces. We know that objects with different masses accelerate to the ground at the same rate. However, because of the 2 nd Law we know that they don’t hit the ground with the same force. F = ma 98 N = 10 kg x 9.8 m/s/s F = ma 9.8 N = 1 kg x 9.8 m/s/s

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Friction—a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching each other. The amount of friction depends on two factors—the kinds of surfaces and the force pressing the surfaces together. While surfaces look and even feel smooth, they can be rough at the microscopic level. What happens to the motion of a skateboard after you push it away from you? The skateboard gradually slows down and finally stops. This is friction acting against the force of the skateboard.

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Three kinds of friction: Static—frictions between two surfaces that are NOT moving past each other Sliding—the force that opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other. Rolling—the friction between a rolling object and the surface it rolls on is rolling friction.

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Air Resistance—force that acts in the direction opposite to that of the object’s motion. The amount of air resistance on an object depends on the speed, size, and shape of an object.

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Terminal Velocity—as an object falls, it accelerates and its speed increases. The force of air resistance increases until it becomes large enough to cancel the force of gravity. Then the forces on the falling object are balanced, and the object no longer accelerates. It falls with a constant speed called terminal velocity.

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Projectile Motion—anything that’s thrown or shot through the air is called a projectile. Because of Earth’s gravitational pull and their own inertia, projectiles follow a curved path. This is because they have horizontal and vertical velocities.

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Centripetal Force—acceleration toward the center of a curved or circular path is called centripetal acceleration. The word centripetal means “to move toward the center”.

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What would happen if the string broke?

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3.Third Law - Law of Equal and Opposite Forces States that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Forces always come in pairs. One force is called the action and the other is called the opposite reaction.

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Examples: As a man exits a canoe, the canoe moves in the opposite direction. The canoe has an equal and opposite reaction to the man’s action. A gun exerts a force on a bullet and the bullet exerts the SAME force on the gun. As the paddle is pushed backward in the water the canoe moves forward. A swimmer pushes water back with his arms, but his body moves forward.

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Check Your Understanding 1.What acceleration will result when a 12 N net force applied to a 3 kg object? A 6 kg object? 2.A net force of 16 N causes a mass to accelerate at a rate of 5 m/s 2. Determine the mass. 3.How much force is needed to accelerate a 66 kg skier 1 m/s 2 ? 4.What is the force on a 1000 kg elevator that is falling freely at 9.8 m/s 2 ?

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Newton’s 3 Laws 1. Inertia 2. F = m x a 3. Action, Reaction

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