Presentation on theme: "General Science Final Exam Review 53 Multiple Choice Questions 14 Short Answer Questions."— Presentation transcript:
General Science Final Exam Review 53 Multiple Choice Questions 14 Short Answer Questions
Elements and Their Properties An element is made of only one type of atom. Examples = Metals are malleable, or can be rolled into sheets. Examples of metals are = tin, copper, cesium, Any material that is flammable can burn in the presence of oxygen. Examples =
Elements Elements have symbols, or one or two letter representations of the element. Example = Aluminum’s symbol is Al
Mixtures There are two types of mixtures: – Homogeneous mixtures appear to be made of only one type of substance. They are evenly mixed. Examples = – Heterogeneous mixtures have all the substances which make them up plainly visible. These settle over time. Examples = jar of mixed nuts
Filtration To separate a heterogeneous mixture, you will need to use filtration. This separates particles of a mixture based on their size. Gravity filtration and vacuum filtration
Force The SI unit of force is the Newton. When an unbalanced force acts on an object, the object accelerates. Examples = The forces on a falling leaf are gravity and air resistance. The force that keeps objects moving in a circular path is centripetal force.
Speed and Acceleration Instantaneous speed is measured at a particular instant. Speed = distance/time Objects in free fall experience constant acceleration. Acceleration due to gravity = An object that is accelerating may be slowing down, gaining speed, or changing direction.
Work Work is a transfer of energy. Examples =
Energy Energy of motion is kinetic energy. Examples = An alternate energy source is solar energy. It cuts down waste, but has many drawbacks, such as the fact that it depends on the climate. Translation =
Conservation of Energy According to the law of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created, energy cannot be destroyed, and energy can be converted from one form to another.
Newton’s Laws Newton’s Second Law states that acceleration is equal to force divided by mass. Newton’s Third Law describes action and reaction forces. Examples =
Weight As an astronaut travels in space, her weight decreases because gravity decreases.
Geology Geology is the study of Earth’s composition, structure, and history. The three main layers of Earth’s interior are the crust, mantle, and core. Drawing = A break in a rock mass where movement occurs is a fault. Drawing =
Geology An earthquake begins inside the Earth at the focus. Drawing =
Caves Caves are formed by erosion from groundwater. Drawing =
Volcano The characteristics of the magma determine if a volcano will erupt quietly or explosively.
Land Movement A rapid mass movement of a large amount of rock and soil down a slope is a landslide. Drawing = A sediment deposit formed from when a stream flows into a lake or ocean is a delta. Drawing =
Water Cycle In the water cycle, liquid is changed to gas by evaporation. Most of Earth’s liquid fresh water is found in groundwater. Drawing =
Fluid Pressure Fluid pressure is greatest at the greatest depth. Example =
Clouds and Precipitation Low, flat layers of clouds that often cover much of the sky and produce steady and widespread rain are nimbostratus clouds. Drawing = Rain and freezing rain fall as liquid.
Atmosphere Most weather takes place in the troposhpere. The ozone layer is in the upper stratosphere.
Zones of the Earth The zones of the Earth from pole to pole, are polar, temperate, tropic, temperate, polar.
Orbit of Earth Earth orbits around the sun once a year, which is called a revolution. Day and night are caused by Earth’s rotation.
The Universe Heliocentric means the sun is at the center of the universe. Drawing = The four terrestrial planets are called terrestrial planets because they are similar in structure to Earth. They are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Jupiter is the gas giant with the largest diameter.
The Universe Comets are mostly ice and rock. Drawing = Galaxies are classified into four groups based on shape. The big bang theory explains the origin of the universe.
The Moon The moon has no atmosphere because its gravity is too weak to hold onto gas molecules. Its gravity is 1/6 that of Earth. Ocean tides are a result in the difference in gravity’s pull by the sun and moon on Earth. Drawing =
The Sun and other Stars The sun’s energy is produced by fusion. Equation = The distance between stars is measured in light-years. Astronomers classify stars by their color, size, and absolute brightness. Stars begin as a ball of gas and dust called a nebula.
The Sun and Stars Stars remain on main sequence 90% of their lifetimes.