Presentation on theme: "General Science Final Exam Review"— Presentation transcript:
1General Science Final Exam Review 53 Multiple Choice Questions14 Short Answer Questions
2Elements and Their Properties An element is made of only one type of atom. Examples =Metals are malleable, or can be rolled into sheets. Examples of metals are = tin, copper, cesium,Any material that is flammable can burn in the presence of oxygen. Examples =
3ElementsElements have symbols, or one or two letter representations of the element.Example = Aluminum’s symbol is Al
4Mixtures There are two types of mixtures: Homogeneous mixtures appear to be made of only one type of substance. They are evenly mixed. Examples =Heterogeneous mixtures have all the substances which make them up plainly visible. These settle over time. Examples = jar of mixed nuts
5FiltrationTo separate a heterogeneous mixture, you will need to use filtration. This separates particles of a mixture based on their size.Gravity filtration and vacuum filtration
6Force The SI unit of force is the Newton. When an unbalanced force acts on an object, the object accelerates. Examples =The forces on a falling leaf are gravity and air resistance.The force that keeps objects moving in a circular path is centripetal force.
7Speed and Acceleration Instantaneous speed is measured at a particular instant. Speed = distance/timeObjects in free fall experience constant acceleration. Acceleration due to gravity =An object that is accelerating may be slowing down, gaining speed, or changing direction.
9Energy Energy of motion is kinetic energy. Examples = An alternate energy source is solar energy. It cuts down waste, but has many drawbacks, such as the fact that it depends on the climate. Translation =
10Conservation of Energy According to the law of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created, energy cannot be destroyed, and energy can be converted from one form to another.
11Newton’s LawsNewton’s Second Law states that acceleration is equal to force divided by mass.Newton’s Third Law describes action and reaction forces. Examples =
12WeightAs an astronaut travels in space, her weight decreases because gravity decreases.
13GeologyGeology is the study of Earth’s composition, structure, and history.The three main layers of Earth’s interior are the crust, mantle, and core. Drawing =A break in a rock mass where movement occurs is a fault. Drawing =
14GeologyAn earthquake begins inside the Earth at the focus. Drawing =
15CavesCaves are formed by erosion from groundwater. Drawing =
16VolcanoThe characteristics of the magma determine if a volcano will erupt quietly or explosively.
17Land MovementA rapid mass movement of a large amount of rock and soil down a slope is a landslide. Drawing =A sediment deposit formed from when a stream flows into a lake or ocean is a delta. Drawing =
18Water CycleIn the water cycle, liquid is changed to gas by evaporation.Most of Earth’s liquid fresh water is found in groundwater. Drawing =
19Fluid PressureFluid pressure is greatest at the greatest depth. Example =
20Clouds and Precipitation Low, flat layers of clouds that often cover much of the sky and produce steady and widespread rain are nimbostratus clouds. Drawing =Rain and freezing rain fall as liquid.
21Atmosphere Most weather takes place in the troposhpere. The ozone layer is in the upper stratosphere.
22Zones of the EarthThe zones of the Earth from pole to pole, are polar, temperate, tropic, temperate, polar.
23Orbit of EarthEarth orbits around the sun once a year, which is called a revolution.Day and night are caused by Earth’s rotation.
24The UniverseHeliocentric means the sun is at the center of the universe. Drawing =The four terrestrial planets are called terrestrial planets because they are similar in structure to Earth. They are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.Jupiter is the gas giant with the largest diameter.
25The Universe Comets are mostly ice and rock. Drawing = Galaxies are classified into four groups based on shape.The big bang theory explains the origin of the universe.
26The MoonThe moon has no atmosphere because its gravity is too weak to hold onto gas molecules. Its gravity is 1/6 that of Earth.Ocean tides are a result in the difference in gravity’s pull by the sun and moon on Earth. Drawing =
27The Sun and other StarsThe sun’s energy is produced by fusion. Equation =The distance between stars is measured in light-years.Astronomers classify stars by their color, size, and absolute brightness.Stars begin as a ball of gas and dust called a nebula.
28The Sun and StarsStars remain on main sequence 90% of their lifetimes.