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Published byKendra Criswell Modified over 2 years ago

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Power Quality during the late 90’s PQ was dominated by Fluke and LEM Power Utilities has just started talking about standards to be followed National Power Corporation, Meralco - main proponents in the utility companies involved in setting up the standards A very few manufacturing companies are aware of the need of PQ for their facilities

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Power Quality in the 2000’s More players came in (RPM, Dranetz-DMI, Hioki, EIG, AEMC, Unipower, etc) Philippine Grid Code was published and started to be implemented (2001) Philippine Distribution Code was published and started to be implemented (2001) TransCo was separated from the National Power Corporation (2003) National Power Corporation, TransCo, Meralco - became models in the PQ standardization

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Power Quality in the 2000’s (cont..) Privatization of the government owned Power Plants TransCo became the National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP) Models for PQ originates from NGCP and Meralco using the PGC and PDC as basis for the standards Manufacturing facilities engineers became aware of the need to implement PM involving PQ

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Power Quality Performance (Article 3.2) System Frequency Deviation Voltage Magnitudes Variations Voltage Fluctuations Harmonic Frequencies Voltage Unbalance Transient Voltage Variations

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Frequency Variations Nominal Frequency – 60 Hz Maintain Frequency during normal conditions Limits: 59.4 Hz ≤ f ≤ 60.6 Hz

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Voltage Variations Long Duration Voltage Variation Duration greater than 1 minute Undervoltage (RMS value is less than or equal to 90% of the nominal value) Overvoltage (RMS value is greater than or equal to 110% of the nominal value) 95% ≤ RMS nominal voltage ≤ 105%

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Voltage Variations Short Duration Voltage Variation Duration greater than ½ cycle but not exceeding 1 minute Voltage Swell (RMS value increases between 110% and 180% of the nominal value) Voltage Sag (RMS value decreases between 10% and 90% of the nominal value)

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Voltage Fluctuation Random amplitude changes of RMS value between 90% to 110% of the nominal voltage Voltage fluctuation shall not exceed 1% of the nominal voltage for every step change, which may occur repetitively Large voltage fluctuation other than a step change maybe allowed up to 3% provided will not put risk to the Grid or any User system

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Flicker Severity Short Term Flicker Severity (P ST ) – short duty cycle fluctuation,shall be computed over a 10- minute period Short Term Flicker Severity (P LT ) – long and variable duty cycle fluctuation, derived from P ST levels

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Harmonics Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) – ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic content to the RMS value of the fundamental quantity in percent

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Harmonics Total Demand Distortion (TDD) – ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic content to the RMS value of the rated or maximum fundamental quantity in percent

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Voltage Unbalance Refers to negative sequence unbalance factor or zero unbalance factor Negative Sequence Unbalance Factor = Negative Sequence Components of Voltages Positive Sequence Components of Voltages Zero Sequence Unbalance Factor = Zero Sequence Components of Voltages Positive Sequence Components of Voltages Compliance: Voltage Unbalance ≤ 1% for 115 kV and above Voltage Unbalance ≤ 2.5% for 69 kV and below

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Grid Code PQ Requirements Transient Voltage Variations High frequency overvoltages shorter in duration compared to short duration voltage variations In-frequent short-duration may exceed levels of harmonics limits provided such increases do not compromise service to End-users or cause damage to Grid equipment In-frequent short-duration with a maximum value of 2% maybe permitted for Voltage Unbalance subject to terms of Connection Agreement

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END OF PRESENTATION THANK YOU

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A distorted periodic current waveform can be decomposed into a set of orthogonal waveforms, (e.g. by Fourier analysis). The RMS value of the composite.

A distorted periodic current waveform can be decomposed into a set of orthogonal waveforms, (e.g. by Fourier analysis). The RMS value of the composite.

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