Presentation on theme: "What SHOULD I have learned this year?. Force and Motion Identify or calculate an object’s average speed S = d/t Practice: A battery-powered toy car travels."— Presentation transcript:
What SHOULD I have learned this year?
Force and Motion Identify or calculate an object’s average speed S = d/t Practice: A battery-powered toy car travels 20 meters in 5 seconds. What is it’s average speed? S = 20m/5s = 4 m/s. Speed is the slope of a distance/time graph
Position vs. Time Graphs Describe the motion of an object based on a graph of the object’s position vs. time. Identify the position vs. time graph that could represent an object’s motion given average speed or position and time data of that object.
Friction Friction is a force that can help objects start moving, stop moving, slow down, or change direction.
Frictional Forces Describe the frictional forces acting on a given object.
Identify the forces acting on an object as balanced or unbalanced given a description of the motion of the object Speeding up? Slowing down? Changing direction? Unchanging? = Unbalanced = Balanced
Motion of Objects Predict the resulting motion of an object given a description of the initial motion of the object and the forces acting on the object.
Unbalanced Forces Compare the motion of objects with different masses that receive the same unbalanced force.
Properties of Matter Identify characteristic intrinsic properties of a substance (i.e., properties that are independent of the amount of a substance) – Density – Solubility – boiling point – melting point Examples: 1) Water’s density = 1.0 g/ml, Vegetable oil = 0.7 g/ml 2) Iron is magnetic 3) Copper and gold are conductors of electricity 4) Water melts/freezes at 0⁰C 5) Water boils/condenses at 100⁰C
Physical Properties DensityState of Matter
Mixtures and Compounds Mixtures Mixtures are more than one substance combined together Trail mix Salad Compounds Compounds are more than one element combined together in a molecule H 2 0 NaCl CO 2
Mixtures Describe how to separate a given mixture using differences in properties – Density – Solubility – phase change temperature differences – Size – magnetic attraction
Compounds Describe that the chemical and physical properties of a compound are different from those of the reactants from which the compound was formed. sodium += Salt
Atoms Identify that all matter is made of atoms. Identify the relationship between atoms and elements – matter made of only one kind of atom is called an element
Kinetic Energy of Particles Solids have slowly-moving atoms packed tightly together definite shape, definite volume Liquids have more freely-moving atoms no definite shape, definite volume Gases have very fast-moving atoms no definite shape, no definite volume Heat energy transfers into kinetic energy of particles. (ex: Boiling Water)
Describe or predict changes in mass of systems undergoing physical and/or chemical changes Physical Change: a change that occurs where there is still the same substance – Ripping paper – Cutting hair – Phase changes Chemical Change: a change occurs where a new substance is formed – Burning – Rust – baking
Conservation of Mass Apply the concept of conservation of mass to account for the mass before and after a physical or chemical change in open and/or closed systems (e.g., water boiling, vinegar reacting with baking soda to produce a gas). – The mass in a closed system stays the same even AFTER a chemical or physical change. Example: Burning 5g of paper in a closed jar won’t gain or lose mass, it will just be 5g of something else (smoke, ashes, etc.)
Energy Forms and Transformations List forms of energy in a given system – Light – thermal (heat) – Chemical – Electrical – Kinetic – sound
Energy Transfers and Transformations Describe how energy is transformed from one form to another and/or how energy is transferred from one place to another in a given system. – Energy Transformation: light energy from the sun transforms into chemical energy in a plant’s leaves – Energy transfer: heat energy from a burner is transferred into heat energy in a frying pan
A thermal insulator resists the flow of heat energy.
Layers of the Earth Compare the relative positions, thicknesses, consistencies, and/or temperatures of Earth’s crust, core, and/or mantle.
Plate Tectonics Convection in the upper mantle causes crustal plate movement. Convection is a heat transfer where hot matter rises and cooler matter sinks.
Plate Tectonics Describe what may happen where plate boundaries meet (i.e., earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, faults, mountain building).
Light Describe that light from the Sun is made up of a mixture of all colors of light. Identify evidence that light from the Sun (i.e., white light) is made up of a mixture of all colors of light.
Light Describe that light emitted from an object or reflected by an object into an eye is necessary for the object to be seen.
Wave Energy Describe that waves (i.e., sound, light, water, seismic) transfer energy. – Light waves (EM spectrum) – Sound waves (from speaker to ear) – Seismic waves (earthquakes) – Water (waves, tsunamis)
Light and Sound Compare characteristics of light and sound waves (e.g., light waves can travel through a vacuum while sound waves cannot).
Wave Speed Describe that waves move at different speeds in different materials (e.g., sound travels more quickly through water than through air). Sound wave
Sound Waves Describe that sound waves are generated and/or transmitted by a vibrating object.
Earth/Sun/Moon Describe the motions of Earth and the Moon relative to the Sun and to each other. Explain one or more phases of the Moon as observed from Earth in terms of the Moon’s changing relative position as the Moon orbits Earth.
Eclipses Describe an eclipse of the Moon and/or an eclipse of the Sun in terms of the relative positions of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon. – Lunar Eclipse – moon enters earth shadow – Solar Eclipse - moon’s shadow falls on earth
Phase vs. Eclipse Compare the causes of the phases of the Moon with the causes of an eclipse of the Moon.
Solar System Describe or compare characteristics of the Sun, the Moon, Earth, other major planets, moons, asteroids, plutoids, and/or comets (i.e., relative size, composition). Describe or compare the relative positions and/or distances between the Sun, the Moon, Earth, and/or other major planets.
Earth/Sun Motion Describe how the motions of Earth and the Sun explain the phenomena of day/night and/or the length of a year on Earth.
Regular Motion Identify phenomena resulting from the regular and predictable motion of objects in the Solar System (e.g., day/night, rising and setting of the Moon, year, phases of the Moon, eclipses).
Gravity and Orbits Describe gravity as the force that keeps planets in orbit and governs the motion of objects in the Solar System. Identify gravity as the sole force holding objects to Earth’s surface. Predict what would happen to an orbiting object if gravity were increased, decreased, or taken away
Galactic Address Earth is the 3 rd planet from the Sun in a system that includes the Sun, Moon, 8 Planets and their moons, dwarf planets, asteroids and comets. Our Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. Many of these stars have planets orbiting around them. The Milky Way is one of hundreds of billions of galaxies in our Universe.