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Yellow Belt Training Kaizen Concepts Yellow Belt Training Kaizen Concepts This product was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s High Growth Job Training Initiative as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment & Training Administration. The information contained in this product was created by a grantee organization and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. All references to non-governmental companies or organizations, their services, products, or resources are offered for informational purposes and should not be construed as an endorsement by the Department of Labor. This product is copyrighted by the institution that created it and is intended for individual organizational, non-commercial use only.
Yellow Belt Training Lean Review Identifying & Eliminating 8 Wastes Yellow Belt Training Lean Review Identifying & Eliminating 8 Wastes
Eight Wastes of Lean
Overproduction Making more than is required by the next process Making earlier than is required by the next process Making faster than is required by the next process Causes of Overproduction Just-in-case logic Misuse of automation Long process set-up Lack of level scheduling Unbalanced work load Over engineered Redundant inspections
To Eliminate Overproduction: Establish a work flow sequence to satisfy the downstream customer. Create workplace norms and standards for each process. Create signal devices to prevent early processing.
Inventory Waste Inventory Waste “Any supply in excess of a one-piece flow through your manufacturing process” “Any supply in excess of a one-piece flow through your manufacturing process” Causes of excess Inventory Protects the company from inefficiencies and unexpected problems. Protects the company from inefficiencies and unexpected problems. Product complexity Unleveled scheduling Poor market forecast Unbalanced workload Unreliable shipments by suppliers Misunderstood communications Reward system
To Eliminate Inventory Waste: Produce only enough to satisfy the work requirements of your downstream customer. Standardize work locations and the number of units per location. Ensure that work arrives at the downstream process when it is required and does not sit there.
Defects Inspection and repair of material in inventory Causes of Defects Weak process control Poor quality Unbalanced inventory level Deficient planned maintenance Inadequate education/training/work instructions Product design Customer needs not understood
To Eliminate Defects: Establish standardized work procedures and office forms. Create and post job aids.
Processing Waste Effort that adds no value to the product or service from the customers’ viewpoint Causes of Processing Waste Product changes without process changes Just-in-case logic True customer requirements undefined Over processing to accommodate downtime Lack of communication Redundant approvals Extra copies/excessive information
To Eliminate Processing Waste: Review the value-added steps in each process, and streamline or eliminate steps whenever possible. Review all signature requirements and eliminate signatures wherever possible.
Waiting Waste Idle time created when waiting for…? Causes of Waiting Waste Unbalanced work load Unplanned maintenance Long process set-up times Misuses of automation Upstream quality problems Unlevel scheduling
To Eliminate Waiting Waste: Review and standardize required signatures to eliminate unnecessary ones. Cross-train employees to allow work flow to continue while someone is out. Balance the workload throughout the day to ensure that all people are being used optimally. Make sure that equipment and supplies are available.
People Waste The waste of not using people’s (mental, creative, physical, skill) abilities. (mental, creative, physical, skill) abilities. Causes of People Waste Old guard thinking, politics, the business culture Poor hiring practices Low or no investment in training Low pay, high turnover strategy
Motion Waste Any movement of people or machines that does not add value to the product or service. Causes of Motion Waste Poor people/machine effectiveness Inconsistent work methods Unfavorable facility or cell layout Poor workplace organization and housekeeping Extra “busy” movements while waiting
To Eliminate Motion Waste: Standardize folders, drawers, and cabinets throughout the area; use color codes as much as possible. Arrange your files (desktop and electronic on PC) in such a way you can easily reference them. Arrange work areas of office equipment in central locations; consider purchasing additional equipment to eliminate multiple trips.
Waste of Transportation Transporting parts and materials around the plant Causes of Transportation Waste Poor plant layout Poor understanding of the process flow for production Large batch sizes, long lead times, and large storage areas
To Eliminate Transportation Waste: Make the distance over which something is moved as short as possible. Eliminate any temporary storage locations or stocking locations.
Waste Identification Exercise Walk Through Target Area Individually look for and write down all wastes observed in the Target Area. Time 1 Hour Return to Class Room for Debrief (If can’t walk through, review Process Maps for 8 wastes, list where Opportunities exist.) Home Work – Opportunities Spreadsheet
Lean Tools for Waste Elimination
House of Lean Value Stream Mapping Visual Controls 5S POUSKaizen CellsQuality at SourceQuick Changeover Facility LayoutTPM Continuous Improvement Tools Pull/Kanban Standardized Work
5S Work Place Organization & Standardization
Elements of 5S Sort – Eliminate the clutter “When in Doubt, Throw It Out!” Set in Order – Organize and label, set boundaries and limits “A Place for Everything and Everything in Its Place” Shine – Clean everything, inside and out “Inspection Through Cleaning” Standardize – Keep maintenance checklists; make them visual “Everything in a State of Readiness” Sustain – Maintain discipline through systems and a supportive culture
A workplace that is clean, organized, orderly, safe, efficient, and pleasant results in: Fewer Accidents Improved Efficiency Reduced Searching Time Reduced Wait Time Visual Workplace Control Improved Morale A foundation for all other improvement activities Why Start Lean With 5S?
What Is Standardized Work? A reliable and repeatable process, safely carried out, with all tasks organized into the best known sequence, using the most effective combination of people, material, machines, and methods Three elements of Standardized Work Work Sequences —well documented and understood processes and procedures which include quality standards Standard In-process Stock—minimum quantity of material needed for completing the assigned project Demand/Capacity—good understanding of how much to produce in a given period of time
Standardized Work Combination Table From: To: Date: Area: Units/Sh. TAKT: Hand Walk Auto Work Elements Time (sec) HAW Seconds TAKT 1 Sub-Assembly A Sub-Assembly B 7 3 Sub-Assembly C Sub-Assembly D 6 5 Final Assembly 1 Totals A Sub-Assembly A-B 1.5 4A Sub-Assembly C-D 1.5 Notes:
Benefits of Standardized Work Maintains productivity, quality, and safety at high levels Provides a basis for tracking performance against established standards Is a tool for effective training and cross- training Can be used as a benchmark for continuous improvement initiatives
…are simple visual signals that give people the information to make the right decision. They are efficient, self-regulating, and user-managed. Examples: Kanban Color-Coding Lines on the floor to delineate storage areas, walkways, work areas, etc. Pictures FIFO Lanes Inboxes / Outboxes Visual Controls
Constraint Summary Form
Point of Use Storage
Point of Use Storage (POUS) Materials, tools, parts, and supplies are all stored in the area in which they are used Utilize a visual, minimum signal replenishment systems Most efficient if vendor or material handling relationship allows for frequent, on-time, small replenishment deliveries
Quality at the Source
the Source means…Assuring Quality Where the Value is Added
Quality at the Source Minimize Passed-on Defects Minimize Passed-on Defects Minimize Rework at Final Inspection Minimize Rework at Final Inspection Eliminate Non-value Added Processing Eliminate Non-value Added Processing Improve Throughput Improve Throughput Maximize Employee Satisfaction Maximize Employee Satisfaction
Build-in Quality Design for manufacturability End-product specifications known by all Standardized work with quality instructions Communication—immediate feedback to workers and vendors when quality problems are identified
Inspection at the Source Employees inspect their own work before passing it to the next process Inspection tools and standards must be supplied to all in-process employees – Visual Tools—product or process samples – Current Documentation—checklists, quality standards – Quality Training on Standards and Inspection
Mistake Proofing (Jidohka & Poka Yoke)
Mistake Proof your Process Low-cost, highly reliable innovations that will detect abnormal situations before they occur….So they Don’t Occur Prevent the production of defective Products or Services
Definition: Definition: Using wisdom & ingenuity to create devices that allow you to do your job 100% defect free - 100% of the time. Mistake Proofing (Poka Yoke)
Definition: Definition: Using a device attached to a machine that will auto-check the part for quality. If the part is defective the machine will stop. This assures that you only make one bad part before you correct the problem. Autonomation (Jidohka)
Mistake Vs. Defect (Symptom)
Microwaves Won’t Allow You To Cook With The Door Open Some Cars Will Automatically Turn The Head Lights Off When You Turn Off The Ignition. Computers Are Programmed To Computers Are Programmed To Ask You If Your Satisfied With Ask You If Your Satisfied With Changes To Your Work. Changes To Your Work. Everyday Mistake Proofing
Mistake-Proof Device Criteria Prevents Reoccurrence? Costs $0 - $500? Made With Wisdom & Ingenuity? Simple To Use? Easy To Implement? Durable? Easy To Maintain? Does Not Hinder Operator? Reliable?
Pull Systems / Kanbans
Push vs. Pull Systems Push System Produces product, using forecasts or schedules, without regard for what is required by the next operation or the Customer Pull System A method of controlling the flow of resources by indirectly linking dissimilar functions, through the use of visual controls (Kanbans and Supermarkets), replacing only what has been consumed by the Customer
What is a Kanban/Kanban Card? A visual instruction device that is set up to allow every operation to produce only the amount of a product that will actually be used in the next step of the production process. Example data that may be on a Kanban Card: Part number Part number Picture or Drawing Picture or Drawing Style Style Address where product originated (supply process) Address where product originated (supply process) Delivery point (next process) Delivery point (next process)
Where Can PULL be used? Anywhere! When you cannot move functions or machines together. Instead, indirectly link them to synchronize their operation by the use of Visual Controls (Kanbans or Supermarkets).
Value-Added Time:Minutes Time in Plant:Weeks Receiving Warehouse Kitting Springs Diodes LEDs Storage Repair Testing Shipping Warehouse Ship Material ORDERCASH MASS PRODUCTION
Process Universe Materials What Type of Materials? What are the Material Specifications? How Much Materials? When are they Needed? Where are they Stored? How are they moved to where we create Value for the Customer Machines What Type of Machines? Where are they Located? People What Type of Personnel are Needed? How Many? What Skills are needed? Methods What Methods do we use? Are the easy to Understand, Learn and Use? How do we Train our Staff?
Layout Revisions Sequence Work Activities to meet Customer Demand Sequence Work Activities to meet Customer Demand Revise Equipment Layout to minimize Motion & Transportation Wastes Revise Equipment Layout to minimize Motion & Transportation Wastes Implement POUS Materials Storage Implement POUS Materials Storage Use Visual Controls Use Visual Controls Revise all Methods to meet the New Layout Revise all Methods to meet the New Layout
Improved Facility Layout Layout Supports Continuous Workflow Less Transportation Waste Less Transportation Waste Reduced Cycle Time Reduced Cycle Time Minimize Work in Process Minimize Work in Process Tools and Materials within the Work Area Tools and Materials within the Work Area Visual Systems - Minimum Communication Visual Systems - Minimum Communication
Lean Tools Summary Introduced to a Number of Lean Tools For Process Improvement. Your Challenge is to Apply these Tools to your processes in Creative ways to Eliminate Waste.