Presentation on theme: "Yellow Belt Training Kaizen Concepts"— Presentation transcript:
1 Yellow Belt Training Kaizen Concepts This product was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s High Growth Job Training Initiative as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment & Training Administration. The information contained in this product was created by a grantee organization and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. All references to non-governmental companies or organizations, their services, products, or resources are offered for informational purposes and should not be construed as an endorsement by the Department of Labor. This product is copyrighted by the institution that created it and is intended for individual organizational, non-commercial use only.
2 Course Topics Lean Review, Identifying Waste Lean Tools for Waste EliminationKaizen Concepts & 10 Step Kaizen Process
3 Yellow Belt Training Lean Review Identifying & Eliminating 8 Wastes
4 Eight Wastes of Lean Overproduction motion Inventory Waiting Extra ProcessingTransportationInventorydefectsWaitingUnderutilized People
5 Overproduction Making more than is required by the next process Making earlier than is required by the next processMaking faster than is required by the next processCauses of OverproductionJust-in-case logicMisuse of automationLong process set-upLack of level schedulingUnbalanced work loadOver engineeredRedundant inspections
6 To Eliminate Overproduction: Establish a work flow sequence to satisfy the downstream customer.Create workplace norms and standards for each process.Create signal devices to prevent early processing.
7 Inventory Waste“Any supply in excess of a one-piece flow through your manufacturing process”Causes of excess InventoryProtects the company from inefficiencies and unexpected problems.Product complexityUnleveled schedulingPoor market forecastUnbalanced workloadUnreliable shipments by suppliersMisunderstood communicationsReward system
8 To Eliminate Inventory Waste: Produce only enough to satisfy the work requirements of your downstream customer.Standardize work locations and the number of units per location.Ensure that work arrives at the downstream process when it is required and does not sit there.
9 Defects Inspection and repair of material in inventory Causes of DefectsWeak process controlPoor qualityUnbalanced inventory levelDeficient planned maintenanceInadequate education/training/work instructionsProduct designCustomer needs not understood
10 To Eliminate Defects:Establish standardized work procedures and office forms.Create and post job aids.
11 Processing WasteEffort that adds no value to the product or service from the customers’ viewpointCauses of Processing WasteProduct changes without process changesJust-in-case logicTrue customer requirements undefinedOver processing to accommodate downtimeLack of communicationRedundant approvalsExtra copies/excessive information
12 To Eliminate Processing Waste: Review the value-added steps in each process, and streamline or eliminate steps whenever possible.Review all signature requirements and eliminate signatures wherever possible.
13 Waiting Waste Idle time created when waiting for…? Causes of Waiting WasteUnbalanced work loadUnplanned maintenanceLong process set-up timesMisuses of automationUpstream quality problemsUnlevel scheduling
14 To Eliminate Waiting Waste: Review and standardize required signatures to eliminate unnecessary ones.Cross-train employees to allow work flow to continue while someone is out.Balance the workload throughout the day to ensure that all people are being used optimally.Make sure that equipment and supplies are available.
15 People Waste The waste of not using people’s (mental, creative, physical, skill) abilities.Causes of People WasteOld guard thinking, politics, the business culturePoor hiring practicesLow or no investment in trainingLow pay, high turnover strategy
16 Motion WasteAny movement of people or machines that does not add value to the product or service.Causes of Motion WastePoor people/machine effectivenessInconsistent work methodsUnfavorable facility or cell layoutPoor workplace organization and housekeepingExtra “busy” movements while waiting
17 To Eliminate Motion Waste: Standardize folders, drawers, and cabinets throughout the area; use color codes as much as possible.Arrange your files (desktop and electronic on PC) in such a way you can easily reference them.Arrange work areas of office equipment in central locations; consider purchasing additional equipment to eliminate multiple trips.
18 Waste of Transportation Transporting parts and materials around the plantCauses of Transportation WastePoor plant layoutPoor understanding of the process flow for productionLarge batch sizes, long lead times, and large storage areas
19 To Eliminate Transportation Waste: Make the distance over which something is moved as short as possible.Eliminate any temporary storage locations or stocking locations.
20 Waste Identification Exercise Walk Through Target AreaIndividually look for and write down all wastes observed in the Target Area.Time 1 HourReturn to Class Room for Debrief(If can’t walk through, review Process Maps for 8 wastes, list where Opportunities exist.)Home Work – Opportunities Spreadsheet
22 Continuous Improvement Tools House of LeanValue Stream MappingVisual Controls5SPOUSKaizenCellsQuality at SourceQuick ChangeoverFacility LayoutTPMContinuous Improvement ToolsPull/KanbanStandardized Work
24 Elements of 5SSort – Eliminate the clutter “When in Doubt, Throw It Out!”Set in Order – Organize and label, set boundaries and limits “A Place for Everything and Everything in Its Place”Shine – Clean everything, inside and out “Inspection Through Cleaning”Standardize – Keep maintenance checklists; make them visual “Everything in a State of Readiness”Sustain – Maintain discipline through systems and a supportive culture
25 Why Start Lean With 5S?A workplace that is clean, organized, orderly, safe, efficient, and pleasant results in:Fewer AccidentsImproved EfficiencyReduced Searching TimeReduced Wait TimeVisual Workplace ControlImproved MoraleA foundation for all other improvement activities
27 What Is Standardized Work? A reliable and repeatable process, safely carried out, with all tasks organized into the best known sequence, using the most effective combination of people, material, machines, and methodsThree elements of Standardized WorkWork Sequences —well documented and understood processes and procedures which include quality standardsStandard In-process Stock—minimum quantity of material needed for completing the assigned projectDemand/Capacity—good understanding of how much to produce in a given period of time
28 Standardized Work Standardized Work Combination Table From: To: Date: Area:Units/Sh.TAKT:HandWalkAutoWork ElementsTime (sec)HAWSecondsTAKT1 Sub-Assembly A2 Sub-Assembly B3 Sub-Assembly C4 Sub-Assembly D5 Final AssemblyTotals30101A Sub-Assembly A-B4A Sub-Assembly C-DNotes:
29 Benefits of Standardized Work Maintains productivity, quality, and safety at high levelsProvides a basis for tracking performance against established standardsIs a tool for effective training and cross-trainingCan be used as a benchmark for continuous improvement initiatives
31 Visual Controls…are simple visual signals that give people the information to make the right decision. They are efficient, self-regulating, and user-managed.Examples:KanbanColor-CodingLines on the floor to delineate storage areas, walkways, work areas, etc.PicturesFIFO LanesInboxes / Outboxes
34 Point of Use Storage (POUS) Materials, tools, parts, and supplies are all stored in the area in which they are usedUtilize a visual, minimum signal replenishment systemsMost efficient if vendor or material handling relationship allows for frequent, on-time, small replenishment deliveries
36 Quality @ the Source means…Assuring Quality Where the Value is Added
37 Quality at the Source Minimize Passed-on Defects Minimize Rework at Final InspectionEliminate Non-value Added ProcessingImprove ThroughputMaximize Employee Satisfaction
38 Build-in Quality Design for manufacturability End-product specifications known by allStandardized work with quality instructionsCommunication—immediate feedback to workers and vendors when quality problems are identified
39 Inspection at the Source Employees inspect their own work before passing it to the next processInspection tools and standards must be supplied to all in-process employees – Visual Tools—product or process samples – Current Documentation—checklists, quality standards – Quality Training on Standards and Inspection
41 Mistake Proof your Process Low-cost, highly reliable innovationsthat will detect abnormal situationsbefore they occur….So they Don’t OccurPrevent the productionof defective Products or Services
42 Mistake Proofing (Poka Yoke) Definition: Using wisdom & ingenuity to create devices that allow you to do your job 100% defect free - 100% of the time.Purpose: Other names for and a brief definition of Mistake Proofing.Main points:Mistake proofing is American English phrasePoka Yoke is Japanese phraseFool Proofing is old term not used because of negative connotation
43 Autonomation (Jidohka) Definition: Using a device attached to a machine that will auto-check the part for quality. If the part is defective the machine will stop. This assures that you only make one bad part before you correct the problem.Purpose: Other names for and a brief definition of Mistake Proofing.Main points:Mistake proofing is American English phrasePoka Yoke is Japanese phraseFool Proofing is old term not used because of negative connotation
45 Everyday Mistake Proofing Microwaves Won’t AllowYou To Cook With The Door OpenSome Cars Will Automatically TurnThe Head Lights Off When YouTurn Off The Ignition.Computers Are Programmed ToAsk You If Your Satisfied WithChanges To Your Work.
46 Mistake-Proof Device Criteria Prevents Reoccurrence?Costs $0 - $500?Made With Wisdom & Ingenuity?Simple To Use?Easy To Implement?Durable?Easy To Maintain?Does Not Hinder Operator?Reliable?
48 Push vs. Pull SystemsPush System Produces product, using forecasts or schedules, without regard for what is required by the next operation or the CustomerPull System A method of controlling the flow of resources by indirectly linking dissimilar functions, through the use of visual controls (Kanbans and Supermarkets), replacing only what has been consumed by the Customer
49 What is a Kanban/Kanban Card? A visual instruction device that is set up to allow every operation to produce only the amount of a product that will actually be used in the next step of the production process.Example data that may be on a Kanban Card:Part numberPicture or DrawingStyleAddress where product originated (supply process)Delivery point (next process)Refer participants to the Glossary definition:Kanban………………A unique information-carrying device that ensures that every operation produces only the amount of a product that will actually be used in the next step of the production process. Kanban serves as instruction for production and conveyance.Kanban Post ……..A visual collection point of Kanban signals used to trigger production or withdrawal of a single item.
50 Where Can PULL be used?Anywhere! When you cannot move functions or machines together. Instead, indirectly link them to synchronize their operation by the use of Visual Controls (Kanbans or Supermarkets).
52 MASS PRODUCTION Material Diodes LEDs Springs Shipping Receiving WarehouseWarehouseStorageRepairKittingTestingShipValue-Added Time:MinutesTime in Plant:WeeksORDERCASH
53 Process Universe Materials What Type of Materials? What are the Material Specifications?How Much Materials?When are they Needed?Where are they Stored?How are they moved to where we create Value for the CustomerMachinesWhat Type of Machines?Where are they Located?PeopleWhat Type of Personnel are Needed?How Many?What Skills are needed?MethodsWhat Methods do we use?Are the easy to Understand, Learn and Use?How do we Train our Staff?Use Manufacturing Department Model:A company has several departments; Accounting, Purchasing, Engineering, Warehousing-Distribution, Manufacturing, & Warranty.Purchasing is measured on minimum cost/piece while engineering is measured on defects/unit. As Purchasing drives down piece part costs they look better against their measure….while WarrantyIt is the goal of the Process Engineer to understand the entire process Universe
54 Layout Revisions Sequence Work Activities to meet Customer Demand Revise Equipment Layout to minimize Motion & Transportation WastesImplement POUS Materials StorageUse Visual ControlsRevise all Methods to meet the New Layout
55 Improved Facility Layout Layout Supports Continuous WorkflowLess Transportation WasteReduced Cycle TimeMinimize Work in ProcessTools and Materials within the Work AreaVisual Systems - Minimum Communication
56 Lean Tools SummaryIntroduced to a Number of Lean Tools For Process Improvement.Your Challenge is to Apply these Tools to your processes in Creative ways to Eliminate Waste.