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Unbalanced Development of Compulsory Education in China Gao Yimin International and Comparative Education Research Institute Beijing Normal University.

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Presentation on theme: "Unbalanced Development of Compulsory Education in China Gao Yimin International and Comparative Education Research Institute Beijing Normal University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unbalanced Development of Compulsory Education in China Gao Yimin International and Comparative Education Research Institute Beijing Normal University

2 Current situations Nine-year compulsory education in China  In 2004 * enrolment rate for primary school % *enrolment rate for junior middle school 94.1 %  In 2009 * enrolment rate for primary school 99.4 % *enrolment rate for junior middle school 99 %

3 Educational expenditure for per student (RMB) [1] Region School Easter n MiddleWesternMiddle VS Eastern Wester n VS Eastern Primary %48% %50.89% Middle %56% %50.39%

4 Educational expenditure for per student (RMB) [1] [2] Area School Urban areas Rural areas Urban VS Rural areas primary times times middle times times

5 Dangerous school buildings [3]  It is reported that 77% percent of primary schools and 61% of junior middle schools in rural areas have dangerous school buildings; however, such situation is rarely found in urban areas. (1999)

6 Quality of teachers (in year of 2002) [2] CityCountyRural QRHDQRHDQRHD Eastern99.3%59.6%98.6%42.0%98.0%29.0% Middle99.1%57.0%98.6%41.6%97.8%26.5% Western98.3%53.0%98.0%35.2%94.2%20.1% QR=qualification rate HD= higher degree

7 Enrolment rate ( in the year of 1999 ) [2] Area Enrolment rate UrbanRuralGap between urban and rural areas Primary to Middle school 98%90%8% Middle to High school 55.4%18.6%36.8% Yuan (2004) surveyed 17 middle schools in rural areas and found that the drop-out rate is up to 43% on average, and the highest is up to 74%.

8 Completion rate of compulsory education  Shandong Province [2] The lowest completion rate in western part of Shandong is 76%, but the highest completion rate in eastern part of Shandong is 99%, and there is a 23% gap between them.

9 Teaching facilities  Experimental facilities In Hunan province, 67.4% of urban schools meet the required standard, but only 29.18% of rural schools meet the required standard.  Establishment of online school In Anhui province, 37.66% of urban schools have set up their online schools, but this rate in rural schools is only 8.01%. [3]

10  Computer In Beijing , about 31 students of urban primary schools can own a computer, but this number is 73 students in rural areas ; about 12 students of urban junior middle schools can own a computer on average but the number is 52 students in rural areas.  Quality of teachers In the Experimental Primary School attached to Beijing Normal University, up to 80% teachers have got the bachelor degree, but the rate is only 30% in a school from the suburb area. [4]

11 Difference in educational groups  It is estimated that in those key middle schools, more than 70% of those students are from families of cadres, intellectuals and high-income families. [2]  The education opportunities for those children of minority have also been affected because of the difference in language and culture.

12 Analysis of causes for the imbalance  Natural causes 9.6 million square kilometers; a population of 1.3 billion; 56 ethnic groups  Historical causes  Institutional causes * Expenditure in compulsory education is mainly from the finance of the county, but the level of economic development has huge difference in different counties. * Key school system * Household registration system

13 Countermeasures Central government increasing educational funding; reforming the way of transfer payment; promoting the training of teacher;… Ministry of Education National Teacher Training Program Local government Beijing : School Building Safety Project ; Middle School Construction Project; Memo with the Ministry of Education; ……

14 Problems and challenges  Theoretically and practically, there are many issues demanding further research and resolution due to the complex relationship between the balanced development of education and the equity of education. 。

15 Equal opportunity of education policy Equal opportunity of education policy can be reflected in three aspects:  firstly, one should be provided with the same educational resources regardless of his potential;  secondly, the students with the same potentials should be treated equally regardless of his personal birth background;  thirdly, one under the disadvantaged situation should be provided with a positively different treatment (Evetts)

16 Other problems  Actually, the policy to narrow down the gap has caused different responses.  The trend to average the teachers’ salary will dampen the enthusiasm of some teachers.  Some policies for standardization have negative effects on the cultivation of students' individuality and creativity.

17 References [1] 《中国教育经费统计年鉴 2009 》 [2] 袁振国. 缩小差距 ——— 中国教育政策的重大命 题 [J]. 北京师范大学学报 ( 社会科学版 ).2005 年 第 3 期. [3] 教育部《 2007 年教育统计数据》 [4] 北京办学条件调查( 2000 )北京市教育委员 会

18  Thank you!


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