Presentation on theme: "Unbalanced Development of Compulsory Education in China Gao Yimin International and Comparative Education Research Institute Beijing Normal University."— Presentation transcript:
Unbalanced Development of Compulsory Education in China Gao Yimin International and Comparative Education Research Institute Beijing Normal University
Current situations Nine-year compulsory education in China In 2004 * enrolment rate for primary school 98.95 % *enrolment rate for junior middle school 94.1 % In 2009 * enrolment rate for primary school 99.4 % *enrolment rate for junior middle school 99 %
Educational expenditure for per student (RMB)  Region School Easter n MiddleWesternMiddle VS Eastern Wester n VS Eastern Primary2001207585198741%48% 20087135.653192.373631.7744.74%50.89% Middle200126551165147444%56% 20089077.314110.844573.8045.29%50.39%
Educational expenditure for per student (RMB)   Area School Urban areas Rural areas Urban VS Rural areas primary200114847981.86 times 20083410.093116.831.09 times middle2001195510141.93 times 20084531.834005.781.13 times
Dangerous school buildings  It is reported that 77% percent of primary schools and 61% of junior middle schools in rural areas have dangerous school buildings; however, such situation is rarely found in urban areas. (1999)
Quality of teachers (in year of 2002)  CityCountyRural QRHDQRHDQRHD Eastern99.3%59.6%98.6%42.0%98.0%29.0% Middle99.1%57.0%98.6%41.6%97.8%26.5% Western98.3%53.0%98.0%35.2%94.2%20.1% QR=qualification rate HD= higher degree
Enrolment rate （ in the year of 1999 ）  Area Enrolment rate UrbanRuralGap between urban and rural areas Primary to Middle school 98%90%8% Middle to High school 55.4%18.6%36.8% Yuan (2004) surveyed 17 middle schools in rural areas and found that the drop-out rate is up to 43% on average, and the highest is up to 74%.
Completion rate of compulsory education Shandong Province  The lowest completion rate in western part of Shandong is 76%, but the highest completion rate in eastern part of Shandong is 99%, and there is a 23% gap between them.
Teaching facilities Experimental facilities In Hunan province, 67.4% of urban schools meet the required standard, but only 29.18% of rural schools meet the required standard. Establishment of online school In Anhui province, 37.66% of urban schools have set up their online schools, but this rate in rural schools is only 8.01%. 
Computer In Beijing ， about 31 students of urban primary schools can own a computer, but this number is 73 students in rural areas ； about 12 students of urban junior middle schools can own a computer on average but the number is 52 students in rural areas. Quality of teachers In the Experimental Primary School attached to Beijing Normal University, up to 80% teachers have got the bachelor degree, but the rate is only 30% in a school from the suburb area. 
Difference in educational groups It is estimated that in those key middle schools, more than 70% of those students are from families of cadres, intellectuals and high-income families.  The education opportunities for those children of minority have also been affected because of the difference in language and culture.
Analysis of causes for the imbalance Natural causes 9.6 million square kilometers; a population of 1.3 billion; 56 ethnic groups Historical causes Institutional causes * Expenditure in compulsory education is mainly from the finance of the county, but the level of economic development has huge difference in different counties. * Key school system * Household registration system
Countermeasures Central government increasing educational funding; reforming the way of transfer payment; promoting the training of teacher;… Ministry of Education National Teacher Training Program Local government Beijing : School Building Safety Project ; Middle School Construction Project; Memo with the Ministry of Education; ……
Problems and challenges Theoretically and practically, there are many issues demanding further research and resolution due to the complex relationship between the balanced development of education and the equity of education. 。
Equal opportunity of education policy Equal opportunity of education policy can be reflected in three aspects: firstly, one should be provided with the same educational resources regardless of his potential; secondly, the students with the same potentials should be treated equally regardless of his personal birth background; thirdly, one under the disadvantaged situation should be provided with a positively different treatment (Evetts)
Other problems Actually, the policy to narrow down the gap has caused different responses. The trend to average the teachers’ salary will dampen the enthusiasm of some teachers. Some policies for standardization have negative effects on the cultivation of students' individuality and creativity.