5Contact and non-contact forces When two objects or materials need to be touching for a force to have an effect, it is a contact force.Examples:frictionair resistanceWhen two objects or materials do not need to be touching for a force to have an effect, it is a non-contact force.Examples:gravityelectrostaticmagneticNon-contact forces act over a distance.Are these non-contact forces attractive, repulsive or both?
6Effects of frictionFriction is a type of force that always acts in the opposite direction to which an object is moving and slows it down.Whenever there is friction between two objects, heat is generated and their surfaces eventually wear away.The effect of friction can be reduced by using a lubricant.Oil is a common lubricant that is used in car engines and bike gears to reduce friction effects.
7What is friction?If you rub your hands together they get warm. There is resistance to the rubbing motion.What is the name of this resistive force called?It is called friction.What causes this force?Your hands might look smooth, but on a microscopic level they have rough surfaces. So when you rub your hands together you feel the resistive force of friction.
8In which direction does friction act? Friction always acts in the opposite direction to which an object is moving.An object will only start to move if the forces applied to it are greater than any frictional forces.What is the direction of friction acting on each moving ball?frictionfrictionfrictionfriction
9Gravitational attraction Gravity is an attractive force that exists between all masses.The larger the mass, the greater the gravitational attraction.The greater the distance between masses, the smaller the gravitational attraction.The Earth has a large mass and so produces a strong gravitational force.The Moon is kept in orbit around the Earth by the pullof the Earth’s gravity.
10Gravity and weightThe pull of the Earth’s gravitational force on an object is called weight.The Moon also has a gravitational force.Why is the weight of an objecton the Moon less than theweight of the same object onthe Earth?The Moon is smaller than theEarth and so the pull of theMoon’s gravity is weaker thanthe pull of the Earth’s gravity.This means that the weight ofthe object is less on the Moon.
11Mass and weight 1 kg What is the difference between mass and weight? mass = 1 kg1 kgweight = 10 NMass is the amount of matter that makes upan object.The mass of an object is always the same, wherever it is in the Universe.Weight is a force due to the pull of gravity on an object.The weight of an object will vary depending on where it is in the Universe.The units of mass are kilograms (kg).The units of weight are newtons (N).
13Forces Types of Forces Newton’s Laws Summary Activities Contents Balanced and Unbalanced ForcesNewton’s LawsSummary Activities
14Force diagrams air resistance weight A force diagram uses arrows to show the forces acting on an object.The direction of each arrow shows you the direction of each force.The size of each arrow can be used to compare the sizes of the forces.air resistanceWhat is the force diagram for this falling object when it first starts to fall?weight
15Forces on still objects What forces are acting on Mel’s computer?The computer is pulled downwards by the forceof gravity and causesit to have weight.The table exerts anequal and oppositeforce pushing upwardson the computer. This is called the normal force.weightreactionforceThese forces are balanced so the computer does not move.What forces are acting on Mel as she works at her computer?
16Forces and motionIf the forces on an object are balanced, the object willcontinue to do what it is already doing without change.If the object is stationary, it will remain stationary.If the object is moving, it will continue to moveat the same speed and in the same direction.If the forces on an object are unbalanced, two thingsabout the object can change:The speed – the object may speed up or slow down.The direction of motion.
17Unbalanced forces and motion If an object is stationary and unbalanced forces act on it, what will happen to the object?The object will start to move – its speed and direction have changed.If an object is moving and unbalanced forces act on it, what can happen to the object?The speed of the object can change.It might speed up or slow down.The direction of the object can change.
20Forces Types of Forces Balanced and Unbalanced Forces ContentsForcesTypes of ForcesBalanced and Unbalanced ForcesNewton’s Laws of MotionSummary Activities
21Newton’s Laws of Motion 1st Law – An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion at constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.2nd Law – Force equals mass times acceleration.3rd Law – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
221st Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion at constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
23These pumpkins will not move unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist changes in its velocity: whether in motion or motionless.These pumpkins will not move unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
24Unless acted upon by an unbalanced force, this golf ball would sit on the tee forever. Once airborne, unless acted on by an unbalanced force (gravity and air – fluid friction), it would never stop!
25It’s a force we sometimes cannot see – FRICTION! Why then, do we observe every day objects in motion slowing down and becoming motionless seemingly without an outside force?It’s a force we sometimes cannot see – FRICTION!
26There are Four main types of Friction: Sliding Friction: Ice SkatingRolling Friction: BowlingFluid Friction (air/liquid): Air or water resistanceStatic Friction: initial friction when moving an object
27Newtons’s1st Law and You Don’t let this be you. Wear seat belts! Because of inertia, objects (including you) resist changes in their motion. When the car going 80 km/hour is stopped by the brick wall, your body keeps moving at 80 m/hour.
28Newtons’ 2nd Law of Motion The net force of an object is equal to the product of its mass and acceleration, or F=ma.
29Newton’s 2nd LawThe net force of an object is equal to the product of its mass and acceleration, or F=ma.
30Newton’s 2nd Law proves that different masses accelerate to the earth at the same rate, but with different forces.We know that objects with different masses accelerate to the ground at the same rate. However, because of the 2nd Law we know that they don’t hit the ground with the same force.
31For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s 3rd LawFor every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
32According to Newton, whenever objects A and B interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other. When you sit in your chair, your body exerts a downward force on the chair and the chair exerts an upward force on your body.
33There are two forces resulting from this interaction - a force on the chair and a force on your body. These two forces are called action and reaction forces.
34Flying gracefully through the air, birds depend on Newton’s third law of motion. As the birds push down on the air with their wings, the air pushes their wings up and gives them lift.
35Forces Types of forces Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Newton’s Laws ContentsForcesTypes of forcesBalanced and Unbalanced ForcesNewton’s LawsSummary activities