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Describing Motion

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Speed The distance an object travels in a certain amount of time; describes a rate Average speed – Total distance divided by total time Constant speed - Speed that does not change

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**What is the formula for calculating speed?**

Speed equals distance divided by time. Unit of Measurement: meters per second (m/s), kilometers per hour (km/hr), or miles per hour (mi/hr)

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Speed Speed = distance ÷ time t = d/S d = S*t d ÷ S X t

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**Let’s Practice Calculating Speed**

In your notebook, calculate this problem. Make sure you show all work! A football field is about 100 meters long. If it takes a person 20 seconds to run its length, how fast was the football player running?

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**Remember to label the UNITS!!**

Check Your Work A football field is about 100 meters long. If it takes a person 20 seconds to run its length, how fast was the football player running? Speed = Distance ÷ Time Speed = 100 m ÷ 20 s Speed = 5m/s Remember to label the UNITS!!

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Velocity An object’s speed and direction at a given time; describes a rate and how fast something moves The wind is blowing 65 km/hr from the North.

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Acceleration A change in the direction or speed (velocity) of an object over time – which may be: A change in speed Starting Stopping Speeding up (positive acceleration) Slowing down (negative acceleration) A change in direction Acceleration is caused by unbalanced forces.

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Forces & Motion

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**Motion A change in the position of an object**

Caused by force (a push or pull)

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**Force A push or pull on an object Measured in units called newtons (N)**

Measured with a spring scale Forces act in pairs Types of Force: gravity electric magnetic friction Air resistance Balanced Unbalanced

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Inertia An object at rest will remain at rest until acted upon by an unbalanced force. An object in motion will remain in motion until acted upon by an unbalanced force. When all forces acting on an object are equal (balanced)

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Balanced Forces When all the forces acting on an object are equal (net force is zero) Balanced forces do not cause a change in motion. Balanced forces can change the physical properties of an object without changing its motion.

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**How Can Balanced Forces Affect Objects?**

Cause the shape of an object to change without changing its motion Cause an object at rest to stay at rest or an object in motion to stay in motion (inertia) Cause an object moving at a constant speed to continue at a constant speed

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Unbalanced Forces When all the forces acting on an object are not equal The forces can be in the same direction or in opposite directions. Unbalanced forces cause a change in motion. In your notes, describe an example of an unbalanced force.

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**How Can Unbalanced Forces Affect Objects?**

Acceleration is caused by unbalanced forces: slow down speed up stop start change direction change shape In your notes, describe an example of an unbalanced force affecting an object.

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**Net Force The total of all forces acting on an object:**

Forces in the same direction are added. The object will move in the direction of the force. Forces in opposite directions are subtracted. An object will move in the direction of the greater force.

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Calculating Net Force 10 N 30 N A child was playing with a jack in the box. The lid pushed down with 10 N of force, while the spring pushed up with 30 N of force. What is the net force applied by the spring? In your notebook, calculate the net force and show all of your work.

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Check Your Answer 10 N 30 N A child was playing with a jack in the box. The lid pushed down with 10 N of force, while the spring pushed up with 30 N of force. What is the net force applied by the spring? 30 N up N down= 20 N up

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**Calculating Net Force Two competitors are playing tug of war.**

Tug of War Game 30 N 50 N Two competitors are playing tug of war. What is the net force? Which direction will the rope move? In your notebook, calculate the net force and show all of your work.

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**Check Your Answer Two competitors are playing tug of war.**

Tug of War Game 50 N 30 N Two competitors are playing tug of war. What is the net force? Which direction will the rope move? 50 N to the right – 30 N to the left = 20 N to the right

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**Mass and Weight Mass is the amount of stuff (matter) in an object.**

The mass of an object will remain the same anywhere in the universe. Mass is measured in grams or kilograms. Weight is the mass (kg) of an object multiplied by the acceleration of gravity (9.8 m/s2). The weight of an object depends on the gravitational pull of the location in the universe. The gravitational pull on the Moon is only 1/6 of Earth’s gravitational pull. Weight is measured in newtons (N).

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**Mass and Weight A person with a mass of 25 kg x 9.8 m/s2 gravitational**

Example: F=ma A person with a mass of 25 kg x 9.8 m/s2 gravitational acceleration is equal to 245 N of weight force. F= 25 kg x 9.8 m/s2 F = 245 N The person exerts 245 N of force on the ground. If the person went to the Moon, they would only weigh 1/6 of 245 N.

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Force Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s2) F ÷ m x a

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Force Acceleration (m/s2) = force (N) ÷ mass (kg) F ÷ m x a

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Force Mass (kg) = force (N) ÷ acceleration (m/s2) F ÷ m x a

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Practice The acceleration of a sprinter is 10 m/s2. The force exerted on the starting blocks is 650 N. What is the mass of the sprinter? Force = Mass = Acceleration =

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Check Your Answer The acceleration of a sprinter is 10 m/s2. The force exerted on the starting blocks is 650 N. What is the mass of the sprinter? Force = 650 N Mass = 65 kg Acceleration = 10 m/s2 Mass = force ÷ acceleration Mass = 650 ÷ 10 Mass = 65

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**Practice A 56 kg cart is accelerating at 15 m/s2. Calculate the force**

exerted on the cart? Force = Mass = Acceleration =

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Check Your Answer A 56 kg cart is accelerating at 15 m/s2. Calculate the force exerted on the cart? Force = 840 N Mass = 56 kg Acceleration = 15 m/s2 Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s2) Force = 56 x 15 Force = 840

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Exit Slip Acceleration Speed Velocity

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Check Your Answer A boat is pulling a 54 kg wake boarder. The force the boat is exerting on her is 108 N. Calculate her acceleration. Force = 108 N Mass = 54 kg Acceleration = 2 m/s2 Acceleration = force ÷ mass Acceleration = 108 ÷ 54 Acceleration = 2

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CHAPTER 2 MOTION. PS 10 a,b The student will investigate and understand scientific principles and technological applications of force, and motion. Key.

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