Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT/SBI/SGS032-U01-03 Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP – SBT032 – Unit 01  SEP – SBI032 – Unit 01  SEP – SGS032 – Unit 01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.3 Credits  Academic Inputs by Mrs. Rasika Bhore M.sc (Microbiology)

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Discuss the significance of Pasteur’s Fermentation experiments to our world today. Describe pasteurization & different diseases due to germs. Discuss the great contribution of Pasteur in Vaccine development. Explain Koch’s Postulates & his discoveries.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Introduction  In the late 1800s, Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch helped develop the science of bacteriology when they discovered a link between bacteria, fermentation and disease.  Pasteur was convinced that microbes caused diseases in humans but his work on cholera had failed. He was never able to directly link one microbe with a disease. Koch succeeded in doing this. © 2007, YMOU. All Rights Reserved.6

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… History of Fermentation  Chemist Louis Pasteur was the first zymologist, when in 1857 he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originally defined fermentation as ‘respiration without air’.  Pasteur concluded, that alcoholic fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells.  The German Eduard Buchner, later determined that fermentation was actually caused by a yeast secretion that he termed zymase.  The efforts of the Danish Carlsberg scientists greatly accelerated the gain of knowledge about yeast and brewing. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Fermentation & Pasteurization  Pasteur demonstrate, from his earlier work on chemical specificity, that the desired production of alcohol in fermentation is due to yeast and that the undesired production of substances (such as lactic acid or acetic acid) that make wine sour is due to the presence of additional organisms such as bacteria.  Pasteur contributed to solving the problem by showing that bacteria can be eliminated by heating the starting sugar solutions to a high temperature.  Pasteur overcome the problems such as the souring of milk, and he proposed a similar solution: heating the milk to a high temperature and pressure before bottling.  This process is now called Pasteurization. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Contribution of Louis Pasteur  Disproof of Spontaneous Generation Fully aware of the presence of microorganisms in nature, Pasteur undertook several experiments designed to address the question of where these "germs" came from. Pasteur concluded from his experiments that the microbes are the contaminants through dust particles in air. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Silkworm Studies  In 1865, Pasteur to come to the aid of the silk industry in southern France.  The country's enormous production of silk had suddenly been curtailed because a disease of silkworms (pebrine), had reached epidemic proportions.  Suspecting that certain microscopic objects found in the diseased silkworms (and in the moths and their eggs) were disease-producing organisms, Pasteur experimented with controlled breeding and proved that pebrine was not only contagious but also hereditary.  He concluded that only in diseased and living eggs was the cause of the disease maintained; therefore, selection of disease-free eggs was the solution.  By adopting this method of selection, the silk industry was saved from disaster. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Germ Theory of Disease  Pasteur's work on fermentation and spontaneous generation had considerable implications for medicine, because he believed that the origin and development of disease are analogous to the origin and process of fermentation.  That is, disease arises from germs attacking the body from outside, just as unwanted microorganisms invade milk and cause fermentation.  This concept, called the germ theory of disease, was strongly debated by physicians and scientists around the world.  Pasteur's studies convinced him that he was right, however, and in the course of his career he extended the germ theory to explain the causes of many diseases. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Anthrax Research  Pasteur also determined the natural history of anthrax, a fatal disease of cattle.  He proved that anthrax is caused by a particular bacillus and suggested that animals could be given anthrax in a mild form by vaccinating them with attenuated bacilli, thus providing immunity from potentially fatal attacks.  In order to prove his theory, Pasteur began by inoculating 25 sheep; a few days later he inoculated these and 25 more sheep with an especially strong inoculants, and he left 10 sheep untreated.  He predicted that the second 25 sheep would all perish and concluded the experiment dramatically by showing, to a skeptical crowd, the carcasses of the 25 sheep lying side by side. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Rabies Vaccine  Pasteur spent the rest of his life working on the causes of various diseases-including septicemia, cholera, diphtheria, fowl cholera, tuberculosis, and smallpox and their prevention by means of vaccination.  He is best known for his investigations concerning the prevention of rabies, otherwise known in humans as hydrophobia.  After experimenting with the saliva of animals suffering from this disease, Pasteur concluded that the disease rests in the nerve centers of the body; when an extract from the spinal column of a rabid dog was injected into the bodies of healthy animals, symptoms of rabies were produced.  By studying the tissues of infected animals, particularly rabbits, Pasteur was able to develop an attenuated form of the virus that could be used for inoculation. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Pasteur’s Institute  In 1885, Pasteur was urged to treat a boy bitten by rabid dog with his new method. At the end of the treatment, which lasted ten days, the boy was being inoculated with the most potent rabies virus known; he recovered and remained healthy.  Thousands of people have been saved from rabies by this treatment. Pasteur's research on rabies resulted, in the founding of a special institute in Paris for the treatment of the disease known as the Pasteur Institute.  Pasteur had long since become a national hero and had been honored in many ways. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Contribution of Robert Koch  Robert Koch was born in Koch worked on anthrax and tuberculosis (TB) and he further developed the work of Louis Pasteur.  Pasteur was convinced that microbes caused diseases in humans but his work on cholera had failed. He was never able to directly link one microbe with a disease. Koch succeeded in doing this.  Koch was a doctor and he had a detailed knowledge of the human body. He was also skilled in experiments, the result of his work in natural sciences. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Investigations of Koch  The first disease that Koch investigated was anthrax. This was a disease that could seriously affect herds of farm animals and farmers.  Anthrax microbe produced spores that lived for a long time after an animal had died. He also proved that these spores could then develop into the anthrax germ and could infect other animals.  Identification of the germ that caused blood poisoning and septicemia.  Discovered that methyl violet dye showed up the septicemia germ under a microscope by staining it.  Method which proves which germ caused an infection.  Technique of growing pure cultures of germs using a mix of potatoes and gelatin.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the cause of the disease TB. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Koch’s Postulate  Koch's postulates are: 1.The microorganism must be found in all organisms suffering from the disease, but not in healthy organisms. 2.The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture. 3.The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism. 4.The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What we Learn…………..  Louis Pasteur was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology.  His experiments confirmed the germ theory of disease, also reducing mortality from puerperal fever (childbed), and he created the first vaccine for rabies.  He is best known for showing how to stop milk and wine from going sour - this process came to be called pasteurization.  Robert Koch worked on anthrax and tuberculosis (TB). © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19 Critical Thinking Questions 1.What actually the action of vaccines in animal body? How? 2.Why Koch’s Postulate are not useful in proving the cause of disease like AIDS?

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Tips For Critical Thinking Questions 1.Antibody production. 2.Koch observed bacteria. Symptoms are not seen in early stage.

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21 Study Tips  Book Title: Microbiology: An Introduction Author: Gerard Tortora  Book Title: Milestones in microbiology Author: Thomas Brock

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22 Study Tips Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch Louis Pasteur

23 End of the Presentation Thank You !


Download ppt "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google