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Welcome to Cells and Heredity. Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration If you have a certain volume of water will it have a corresponding.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Cells and Heredity. Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration If you have a certain volume of water will it have a corresponding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Cells and Heredity

2 Weekly Lab – scientific tools and scientific exploration If you have a certain volume of water will it have a corresponding mass? Is the relationship between water volume and mass linear? Does the mass of water change depending on the volume? Tools: Beakers Triple Beam Balances Water Graph paper

3 Cells and heredity…The genetics of life! What makes something living? Biotic Ability to develop and grow Ability to respond to the environment Ability to reproduce THEN… Made of CELLS CHARACTERISTICS of living organisms

4 What are the internal structures of a cell?

5 Organelles and their functions in the cell … Mitochondria Chloroplasts Cell wall Lysosomes Cell membrane Cytoplasm Central vacuole Ribosomes Nucleus Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell. Examples include :

6 What are the differences between plant and animal cells ? Plants Central vacuole Chloroplast Cell wall Animals lysosome

7 Using technology in the science classroom -Check out ipad -open the app “explain everything” to develop a video explaining the function and purpose of organelles in a cell -include information on the difference between plant and animal cells.

8 Cell Theory states that… Every living thing is made of one or more cells Cells carry out the functions needed to support life Cells come from other living cells Unicellular Multicellular

9 Unicellular organisms Multicellular organisms Can survive on their own Small…bacteria… algae…amoebae One cell Larger…many cells…specialized… different types of cells

10 Metric REVIEW

11 LITERS GRAMS METERS CELCIUS LIQUID WEIGHT AREA PERIMETER

12 Diffusion and Osmosis?

13 Weekly Lab – Osmosis Why is it important that materials be able to move in and out of a cell?? How do materials move into and out of cells? Tools: Eggs Vinegar Plastic cup Data sheet Triple bean balance STEPS: Weigh cup Weigh cup and egg Determine starting weight of egg Place egg in vinegar Record weight of egg in data sheet

14 The movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Atoms and small molecules can move across a cell membrane by diffusion Diffusion Not just as a liquid…

15 Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of the movement of water from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration through a cell membrane or other semi- permeable membrane until an equilibrium is reached.

16 Active Transport Passive Transport The movement of materials in and out of a cell, without using any of the cells energy. EXAMPLE - Diffusion The movement of materials in and out of a cell, using the cells energy. EXAMPLE – Sweating (removal of salts) ENDOCYTOSIS & EXCOCYTOSIS

17 Welcome to a-sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only

18 Cells are broken down into two groups Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells -Genetic material in nucleus -Organelles -Predominantly multicellular Genetic material in cytoplasm No organelles Mostly unicellular organisms

19 A-Sexual Reproduction The identical creation of a new cell/structure can live separately yet genetically identical to the parent. In unicellular organisms Cell Division = Reproduction Mitosis

20 Budding Single cells - yeast Multi-cellular - Hydra

21 Binary Fission In simple terms, splitting in two… Prokaryotes – split in two EX: bacteria Eukaryotic organisms – separate and independent EX: algae / paramecium

22 Regeneration in Northern Sea Star

23 Cell division - A sexual

24 Mitosis – a-sexual cell division Interphase Mitosis Cytokinesis

25 Mitosis… The second part of the cell cycle, as the chromosomes divide and split With multi-cellular organisms, new cells are unable to live alone, they become part of the original structure. GROWTH & REPAIR Part of the cell cycle

26 Cellular Reproduction Mitosis Meiosis = a-sexual = sexual cell division

27 HUMANS – (organism)  Multicellular  Has nucleus in cells  Eukaryotic Bacteria – (organism)  Unicellular  No nucleus DNA in Cytoplasm  Prokaryotic Mitosis Or skin…. Meiosis Producing a genetically different offspring New organism from two parents Cloned organism from one parent REVIEW

28 CELL DIVISION New Organism Sexual Meiosis Daughter Cell (clone) A-sexual Mitosis  

29 The Cell Cycle has three main parts… Mitosis

30 Growth and Repair

31 Mitosis causes growth and repair by providing more identical cells to replace old, damaged or missing cells for repair or to produce more tissue for growth. WHY Mitosis Cell division has the ability to create new cells and is a simplistic way of cell reproduction. The cell copies themselves reproducing and creating a identical daughter cell. The ability to do this gives the cells the ability to repair things such as…?

32 What is Growth and Repair?

33 Growth, repair or both?

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39 Welcome to meiosis What is mitosis again?

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41 Meiosis = sexual cell division with the purpose of developing a new individual offspring TERMINOLOGY Sperm Egg Gamete fertilization ONLY in reproductive tissues? REPRODUCTION

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43 Web Quest – In teams of two -Find a working definition for meiosis and convert to your words -Build graphic organizer to show definitions for at least five terms -Develop definition to compare meiosis to mitosis

44 What is meiosis? Sexual reproduction of diploid cells which creates four haploid daughter cells. These daughter cells become either sperm or eggs (gametes).

45 What is fertilization? The combining of egg and sperm (gametes) to create a zygote (new being)

46 Genetics

47 Dominant Traits- Brown Eyes Dark hair Unattached earlobes Dimples Freckles Can roll tongue Left over right thumb Widows Peak Recessive Traits- Blue Eyes Blond/red hair Attached earlobes No Dimples No Freckles Can’t roll tongue Right over left thumb No Widows Peak

48 The Punnett Square … Determining Heredity Gregor Mendel

49 Looking at traits

50 Why is there a brown chicken?

51 BLOOD

52 Blood is a combination of plasma (watery liquid) and cells that float in it. It is a specialized bodily fluid that supplies essentials substances and nutrients, such as sugar, oxygen, and hormones to our cells, and carries waste away from those cells, this waste is eventually flushed out of the body in urine, feces, sweat, and lungs (carbon dioxide). Blood also contains clotting agents. Blood type is determined by proteins called antigens:

53 Three types of blood cells: RED – most abundant, responsible for carrying O 2 to the cells in the body WHITE – part of immune system that keeps us healthy in killing destructive agents to the body PLATLETS – The clotting parts that seal wounds

54 Four Possible Blood Types The ABO blood type classification system uses the presence distinct molecules called agglutinogens or absence of these molecules to categorize blood into four types: Type O blood is the recessive allele

55 BLOOD TYPE IS GENETIC The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are produced by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene: A and B. The A and B alleles code for enzymes that produce the type A and B antigens respectively. A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional and does not produce surface molecules. (recessive) Two copies of the gene are inherited, one from each parent. The possible combinations of alleles produce blood types in the following way:

56 How white blood cells are formed

57 Blood cells – white blood cells

58 Terminology Plasma - 55% of total blood volume– holds blood in suspension and 92% by volume water Antibodies - a blood protein produced by white blood cells to combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood. Antigen – the foreign substance being attacked by antibodies

59 DNA intro and review

60 DNA = The information molecule Replication produces two identical molecules of DNA

61 DNA The hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell’s nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA) Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people.

62 Parts of the double helix DNA base pairs – Cytosine & Guanine Adenine & Thymine Phosphates and sugar The pairs are always together, their order on the DNA molecule is what changes

63 GENES- Chromosomes - DNA

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65 DNA CRITERIA Explain before you begin: – What are adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine – How are they paired? Open DNA Damage Write ALL information that is given to you

66 Mutations A change in DNA, the heredity material of life. An organism’s DNA affects how it looks, behaves and its physiology. mutations - change

67 UNIT EXAM


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