Presentation on theme: "GENERAL CONSIDERATION TO THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS."— Presentation transcript:
GENERAL CONSIDERATION TO THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS
Major topics in microbial physiology Microbial growth Bioenergetics Cell structure and function Microbial metabolism Bacterial responses to environmental cues and intercellular signals Regulation of prokaryotic gene expression Cell division and cellular differentiation in bacteria
Structure and Function Composition and Metabolism Growth and Factors Affecting Growth Genetics and Regulation
Brief comparison of structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Higher Eukaryotes Lower EukaryotesProkaryotes MetazoanProtozoanAlgaeFungi NucleusMacronucleusNucleus Nucleoid Nuclear membrane NucleolusNuclear elements 80S Ribosomes 70S Ribosomes Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatusDictyosomes No cell wall Cell wall Chitin, glycans Cell wall peptidoglycan Undulating flagella or cilia Rotating flagella
Diagrammatic representation of a “typical” bacterial cell (E. coli)
Brief comparison of the cell surfaces of G(+) and G(-) bacteria Difference between flagella of G(+) and G(-) bacteria?
Metabolism Production of energy: substrate-level phosphorylation (fermentation), oxidative phospholation (respiration) Production of reducing power: phototrophy or chemotrophy Production of precursor metabolites: organotrophy or lithotrophy Inorganic metabolism: nitrogen and sulfur assimilation Biosynthesis: building blocks, macromolecules Assemblage Regulation
Overview of metabolism leading to the E. coli cells from glucose
Growth and factors affecting growth Nutrition: chemolithotrophs, photolithotrophs, photoorganotrophs, chemoorganotrophs; growth factors or vitamins Oxygen: aerobes, anaerobes, facultative anaerobes; toxic effect and superoxide dismutase Carbon dioxide: fixation of carbon dioxide, anapleurotic reactions Extremophiles Stress responses
Genetics and regulation Mutations: spontaneous or induced Metabolic regulation: regulation of enzyme activity (feedback inhibition), modifications Genetic regulation: repression or induction of enzyme synthesis
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