2Some Cell Fun Facts You can grow heart cells in a petri dish. Humans have an estimated 10 trillion cells.The largest known cell is an unfertilized ostrich egg cell.The word cell comes from the Latin word cellula, meaning, “small room”.One single cell contains two meters of DNA.Humans shed and re-grow outer skin cells about every 27 days.
3Cells Discovered in 1665Why didn’t we know about cells before this?
111838Matthias Schleiden, a German scientist said….all plant parts are made of cellsOne year later, Theodor Schwann, a German scientist that studied animals stated that all animal tissues are made of cells
121858 Rudolf VirschowSaid that all cells form only from other cells
13THE CELL THEORY: 1. ALL ORGANISMS ARE ONE OR MORE CELLS 2. CELL IS THE UNIT OF ALL LIFE3. All cells come from existing cells
144 Parts found in all Cells 1. Cell membrane-outer covering2. Organelles- small bodies in the cytoplasm3. DNA (genetic material)4. Cytoplasm- the fluid inside a cell along with all the cell’s contentsSmall sizeSmallest=bacteriaLargest=ostrich egghow big animationAll cells have a …
16Two Kinds of Cells: 1. Cells without a nucleus 2. Cells with a nucleus Called Prokaryotic cellsThese can be either:bacteria or archaeaAre super small in size2. Cells with a nucleusCalled Eukaryotes-(these are the cells in plants, animals and fungi)
17PROKARYOTIC CELLS Bacteria, and Archaea NO NUCLEUS NO MEMBRANES AROUND ORGANELLESCIRCULAR DNA(looks a little like a rubber band)
18Bacteria Most common prokaryotes Smallest cells known Live almost everywhereNo nucleus but DO have DNADNA is long and shaped like a twisted rubber band (circular shaped)No membrane-covered organellesDo have ribosomes and cell wall
20Archaea… Same as bacteria except: Ribosomes are different…..are more like Eukaryotic ribosomesCell wall and cell membranes are made of different materialsMany live in Bizarre environments!Ex. heat-loving, salt-loving, methane-making archaea
25EUKARYOTIC CELLS(our cells) (ALL CELLS) EXCEPT bacteria and ArchaeaAre 10 times bigger than bacteriaHave a NUCLEUSHave MEMBRANE –COVERED ORGANELLESHave LINEAR DNA found inside a nucleus
26Really important cell vocab: CELLULOSE- tough stuff in plant cell wallsATP- the “energy molecule” for a cell, (is like gasoline for a car)DNA- instructions for the cellPHOSPHOLIPIDS- the stuff all membranes are made of
27Section 2 The Inside of a Eukaryotic Cell The “true” cell.plantsanimalsfungi
30CELL WALL IN PLANT CELLS (and algae) ONLY Made of a hard material called CelluloseProvides strength and support to the cell membraneWhen you look at dried hay, sticks and wooden boards you are seeing the cell walls of dead plant cells!
34CytoskeletonA web of proteins in the cytoplasm that acts as a muscle and a skeleton. It helps a cell retain its shape and moves organelles around.
35NUCLEUS: Library, or Town center Stores the DNA Has all the “secret info” for the organism
36RIBOSOMES: SMALLEST of all ORGANELLES (THE DOTS) ON THE E.R. (only organelle without a membrane)Act like factories for making proteins
37MITOCHONDRIA: Power plants…release energy for the cell Make the ATP Used in all cell ( activities)
38VACUOLE: Is really big in plant cells Small in animal cells Serves as a water storage compartment
39CHLOROPLASTS:(plant cells only!) Contains chlorophyllCaptures sunlight to make food (sugar) used by mitochondriaMakes plants appear green
40GOLGI COMPLEX: FedEx Delivery Gets rid of things inside the cell Shipping and Handling
41LYSOSOMES: "suicide sacs" Contain digestive enzymes Cellular Digestion…LYSOSOMES:"suicide sacs"Contain digestive enzymesClean-up/ destroy cell waste, sometimes called the recycling centerCan act as security to protect the cell from invadersSanitation company?Mainly in animal cells
42ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Post office, delivery system, tunnel systemMakes lipids for membranes, processes and transports proteinsCELL:ER
46Another Fun Fact... EVIDENCE? Scientists believe that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as a prokaryotic cell that was “eaten” by larger cells. They ended up surviving inside.EVIDENCE?Both have two membranesHave a) ribosomes and b) circular DNASame size as bacteriaDivide like bacteria
47Sec.3: The Organization of Living Things… (Small to big)CELLSTISSUESORGANSORGAN SYSTEMSORGANISM
48Organism Anything that can perform life processes by itself Organisms can be:Unicellular-(single celled)Multicellular- (consists of many cells)Euglena:
49Oh the Joy of being multicellular ! Larger sizeLonger lifeSpecializationEach type of cell has a special jobMakes the organism more efficient
50Structure and Function In an organism, structure and function are related.Example: Alveoli air sacs in the lungs:See fig p.79