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Cinda Sheldon CELLS Cell Structure and Function Cinda Sheldon SIZE COMPARISONS  REPRESENTS 10 MICRONS  0.5-.05 microns-VIRUS  O.5-1.5 microns-BACTERIA.

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Presentation on theme: "Cinda Sheldon CELLS Cell Structure and Function Cinda Sheldon SIZE COMPARISONS  REPRESENTS 10 MICRONS  0.5-.05 microns-VIRUS  O.5-1.5 microns-BACTERIA."— Presentation transcript:


2 Cinda Sheldon CELLS Cell Structure and Function

3 Cinda Sheldon SIZE COMPARISONS  REPRESENTS 10 MICRONS  0.5-.05 microns-VIRUS  O.5-1.5 microns-BACTERIA  5 microns-RED BLOOD CELL  5-8 microns-LYMPHOCYTE  60 microns-HUMAN SPERM


5 Cinda Sheldon Prokaryotic Cell (bacteria)  No true nucleus

6 Cinda Sheldon Nucleoid  Coiled DNA-not in a membrane

7 Cinda Sheldon Capsule  Sticky, helps the cell adhere to surfaces

8 Cinda Sheldon Prokaryotic  Here’s streptococcus, anthrax, and meningitis bacteria

9 Cinda Sheldon Eukaryotic  DO HAVE A TRUE NUCLEUS WITH A MEMBRANE –Plants –Animals –Fungi –Protists

10 Cinda Sheldon Eukaryotic Cells  Have a true nucleus bound by a membrane

11 Cinda Sheldon EUKARYOTIC CELLS  You will make an edible cell model block day – Nov. 29 + 30

12 Cinda Sheldon NUCLEUS  Houses the genetic material: DNA  Control center

13 Cinda Sheldon The Nucleus  Nuclear Envelope-double membrane with pores to let materials in and out

14 Cinda Sheldon DNA  Chromatin = DNA attached to protein as long, thin fibers

15 Cinda Sheldon Nucleus

16 Cinda Sheldon How Are They Related?  Chromatin- loose-made of DNA, RNA, and proteins  Chromosomes -compact, tight- when cell is going to divide

17 Cinda Sheldon Chromosome  Coiled up chromatin

18 Cinda Sheldon Nucleolus  LOCATION:  small dark area inside the nucleus  FUNCTION:  makes ribosomes

19 Cinda Sheldon Go Bucks! We Beat Michigan!

20 Cinda Sheldon Plasma Membrane  LOCATION: Surrounds the cell  FUNCTION: Sets off the cell from its environment  Controls what goes in/out of the cell

21 Cinda Sheldon PLASMA MEMBRANE Double Membrane Material Exits the Membrane Protein Channel AnimationProtein Channel Animation

22 Cinda Sheldon Pili  Short projections of membrane  Help hold onto surfaces

23 Cinda Sheldon Flagella  Longer Projections  Propel through water

24 Cinda Sheldon Flagellum

25 Cinda Sheldon 9 + 2 arrangement  * a cylindrical array of 9 filaments  * a pair of single microtubules running up through the center of the bundle

26 Cinda Sheldon Cilia  Shorter Projections  Usually many of them

27 Cinda Sheldon How do they move?  Flagella and Cilia Animation (Click) Flagella and Cilia Animation

28 Cinda Sheldon Cell Wall  Protects cell  helps it maintain its shape  Outside the cell membrane

29 Cinda Sheldon CELL WALL: only in plant cells + prokaryotes

30 Cinda Sheldon Capsule  Sticky outer coat  Helps glue it to surfaces (like sticks, rocks, human tissue)  Only in prokaryotes (bacteria)

31 Cinda Sheldon Capsule

32 Cinda Sheldon Cytoplasm  Fluid filled region between the plasma membrane and nucleus  (jello)

33 Cinda Sheldon Organelles  “little organs”  most are membranous

34 Cinda Sheldon What goes on in them?  Cellular metabolism  Chemical activities of the cell

35 Cinda Sheldon What advantage is having organelles?  Separate the chemicals of cellular metabolism (some may be toxic)  Increases the membrane surface area  (this is where most processes occur)

36 Cinda Sheldon Ribosomes  Small (21-25 nm)  assemble amino acids into polypeptides  (protein)

37 Cinda Sheldon RIBOSOMES  Assembles the proteins  Has two subunits

38 Cinda Sheldon Ribosome

39 Cinda Sheldon Endomembrane System  (Organelles that are formed by membranes) –endoplasmic reticulum –Golgi apparatus –lysosomes –vacuoles

40 Cinda Sheldon ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM  Channels within the cell

41 Cinda Sheldon ER  SMOOTH ER = Has no ribosomes embedded in it  Makes lipids

42 Cinda Sheldon ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM  Channels to bring materials to ribosomes  Assemble proteins  ROUGH ER = has ribosomes embedded in it

43 Cinda Sheldon Rough ER

44 Cinda Sheldon Path of Proteins  ER collects proteins  creates a bubble around it (transport vesicle)  then to cell membrane or the Golgi apparatus

45 Cinda Sheldon

46 GOLGI COMPLEX (Golgi apparatus, Golgi Bodies)  Sacs are not interconnected  Looks like flattened stacks of pita bread

47 Cinda Sheldon Golgi Apparatus  “Molecular warehouse and finishing factory”  Repackage proteins

48 Cinda Sheldon Golgi apparatus Also known as Golgi body Golgi complex

49 Cinda Sheldon Making A Golgi Vesicle

50 Cinda Sheldon Vesicle Animations (Click)  Vesicle Budding and Fusing Vesicle Budding and Fusing  vesicle animation Push the finger to the vesicle vesicle animation  Rediscovering Biology - Unit 10 Neurobiology: Animations and Images Rediscovering Biology - Unit 10 Neurobiology: Animations and Images  (click on synaptic vesicles)

51 Cinda Sheldon Golgi Bodies Making vesicles to carry out repackaged proteins

52 Cinda Sheldon LYSOSOME  Vesicles that package the enzymes that break up large molecules.  “clean-up crew”

53 Cinda Sheldon Breakin’ it Down  WHAT? Food + damaged organelles + bacteria

54 Cinda Sheldon LYSOSOMES  Lysosome Animations Lysosome Animations  HOW DO THEY FORM? WHAT IS THEIR JOB?

55 Cinda Sheldon Peroxisomes  Form in an oxygen –rich environment  (adds H to O to make H 2 O 2, hydrogen peroxide)

56 Cinda Sheldon VACUOLES: Food or Water  contain water and/or storage materials

57 Cinda Sheldon Food Vacuole (b) in Amoeba

58 Cinda Sheldon Food Vacuole Movies  Phagocytosis (click) Phagocytosis  phagocytosis movie (click) phagocytosis movie

59 Cinda Sheldon VACUOLES  Vacuoles are usually larger than vesicles + lysosomes  Largest structure in a plant cell  Smaller in animal cells

60 Cinda Sheldon Central Vacuole in Plants

61 Cinda Sheldon Full and Not Full Vacuoles

62 Cinda Sheldon Contractile Vacuole  Collect water and expel it to the outside  (click)Click on Contractile Vacuole of ParameciumClick on Contractile Vacuole of Paramecium

63 Cinda Sheldon CHLOROPLASTS  Only in plants  green

64 Cinda Sheldon CHLOROPLASTS  Convert light energy to chemical energy (sugars)  WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS TAKES PLACE

65 Cinda Sheldon Chloroplast  Granum = stack of disks where chloroplasts store energy  stroma=area between grana

66 Cinda Sheldon MITOCHONDRIA  “cellular respiration” here  Note the inner folded area to increase surface area  “powerhouse”  (break down fuel for energy)

67 Cinda Sheldon MITOCHONDRIA “cell’s powerhouse”

68 Cinda Sheldon Mitochondria  Combines food with oxygen to release energy (such as ATP)

69 Cinda Sheldon Mitochondrion (note folds)

70 Cinda Sheldon Cytoskeleton  Support  frame-  work for the  cell

71 Cinda Sheldon Cytoskeleton

72 Cinda Sheldon Cytoskeleton  Microtubules 20 to 25 nanometers  Microfilament 3 to 6 nanometers  Found in both Plants and animals

73 Cinda Sheldon Microtubule

74 Cinda Sheldon Actin stretching fibers  In muscles

75 Cinda Sheldon Conveyor Belts in the cell  Actin (red)  Microtubules (green)

76 Cinda Sheldon Cytoskeleton: Centrioles  Only in animal cells  Used in cell division (act as poles)

77 Cinda Sheldon Centrioles Found perpendicular in pairs

78 Cinda Sheldon Microfilaments + Tubules “cytoskeleton”

79 Cinda Sheldon

80 Name the Organelles

81 Cinda Sheldon Interactive Cells  Cell Models: An Interactive Animation (click) Cell Models: An Interactive Animation  A Typical Animal Cell - Learning Activity - Fla - Flash Player Installation (click) A Typical Animal Cell - Learning Activity - Fla - Flash Player Installation

82 Cinda Sheldon Cell Junctions  Structures that hold the cells together:  Plant cells = plasmodesma  Animal cells = extracellular matrix

83 Cinda Sheldon “holes in the wall”  Plasmodesma  (plural) = Holes that allow water to pass through

84 Cinda Sheldon Note the channels between cells Plasmodesmata (sing.)

85 Cinda Sheldon Extracellular Matrix Some anchor, communicate with other cells, or offer leakproof covering

86 Cinda Sheldon Name the parts

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