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Objective 3: TSWBAT compare relative size of various cells and describe how and why surface-to- volume ratio is a limiting factor in cell size.
All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane. The semifluid substance within the membrane is the cytosol, containing the organelles. All cells contain chromosomes which have genes in the form of DNA. All cells also have ribosomes, tiny organelles that make proteins using the instructions contained in genes. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
A major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the location of chromosomes. In an eukaryotic cell, chromosomes are contained in a membrane-enclosed organelle, the nucleus. In a prokaryotic cell, the DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid without a membrane separating it from the rest of the cell. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 7.4 The prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure, lacking a nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell.
In eukaryote cells, the chromosomes are contained within a membranous nuclear envelope. The region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane is the cytoplasm. All the material within the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell is cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is a variety of membrane-bounded organelles of specialized form and function. These membrane-bounded organelles are absent in prokaryotes. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Eukaryotic cells are generally much bigger than prokaryotic cells. The logistics of carrying out metabolism set limits on cell size. At the lower limit, the smallest bacteria, mycoplasmas, are between 0.1 to 1.0 micron. Most bacteria are 1-10 microns in diameter. Eukaryotic cells are typically microns in diameter. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 7.5 Metabolic requirements also set an upper limit to the size of a single cell. As a cell increases in size its volume increases faster than its surface area. Smaller objects have a greater ratio of surface area to volume.
The plasma membrane functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes for the whole volume of the cell. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 7.6
The volume of cytoplasm determines the need for this exchange. Rates of chemical exchange may be inadequate to maintain a cell with a very large cytoplasm. The need for a surface sufficiently large to accommodate the volume explains the microscopic size of most cells. Larger organisms do not generally have larger cells than smaller organisms - simply more cells. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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