Presentation on theme: "Cell StructureSection 1 Section 1: Introduction to Cells Preview Bellringer Key Ideas The Discovery of Cells Looking at Cells Cell Features Summary."— Presentation transcript:
Cell StructureSection 1 Section 1: Introduction to Cells Preview Bellringer Key Ideas The Discovery of Cells Looking at Cells Cell Features Summary
Cell StructureSection 1 Bellringer After viewing the list of items on the board, work with a partner and make two new lists: those items on the list comprised of cells and those items not comprised of cells. Give a rationale for each answer.
Cell StructureSection 1 Key Ideas How were cells discovered? Why does cell shape vary? What enables eukaryotes to perform more specialized functions than prokaryotes?
Cell StructureSection 1 The Discovery of Cells Microscope observations of organisms led to the discovery of the basic characteristics common to all living things. Scientists first discovered cells in the 1600s using crude microscopes. Observations made by scientists using more powerful microscopes in the 1800s led to the formation of the cell theory.
Cell StructureSection 1 Visual Concept: Cell Theory
Cell StructureSection 1 Looking at Cells Cells vary greatly in their size and shape. A cell’s shape reflects its function. Cell size is limited by a cell’s surface area-to-volume ratio. Cells can be branched, flat, round, or rectangular.
Cell StructureSection 1 Looking at Cells, continued All substances that enter or leave a cell must cross the surface of the cell. A cell’s ability to move substances across its surface can be estimated by finding its surface area-to-volume ratio. Cells with greater surface area-to-volume ratios can exchange substances more efficiently.
Cell StructureSection 1 Relationship between Surface Area and Volume
Cell StructureSection 1 Looking at Cells, continued When comparing cells of the same shape, small cells have greater surface area-to-volume ratios than large cells. So, small cells function more efficiently than large cells.
Cell StructureSection 1 Cell Features All cells share common structural features, including a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA. The cell membrane is the outer layer that covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the outside environment and the inside of the cell. The cytoplasm is the region of the cell within the cell membrane. The cytoplasm includes the fluid inside the cell called the cytosol.
Cell StructureSection 1 Cell Features, continued A ribosome is a cellular structure that makes proteins. The DNA of a cell provides instructions for making proteins, regulates cellular activities, and enables cells to reproduce.
Cell StructureSection 1 Features of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Cell StructureSection 1 Cell Features, continued Features of Prokaryotic Cells A prokaryote is an organism made of a single prokaryotic cell. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or other internal compartments. The genetic material of a prokaryotic cell is a single loop of DNA. For millions of years, prokaryotes were the only organisms on Earth.
Cell StructureSection 1 Cell Features, continued Features of Eukaryotic Cells A eukaryote is an organism made up of one or more eukaryotic cells. All multicellular organisms are made of eukaryotic cells. The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found in an internal compartment of the cell called the nucleus. All eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles. An organelle is a small structure found in the cytoplasm that carries out specific activities inside the cell.
Cell StructureSection 1 Cell Features, continued Each organelle in a eukaryotic cell performs distinct functions. The complex organization of eukaryotic cells enables them to carry out more specialized functions than prokaryotic cells.
Cell StructureSection 1 Visual Concept: Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Cell StructureSection 1 Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Cell StructureSection 1 Summary Microscope observations of organisms led to the discovery of the basic characteristics common to all living things. A cell’s shape reflects its function. Cell size is limited by a cell’s surface area-to-volume ratio. The complex organization of eukaryotic cells enable them to carry out more specialized functions than prokaryotic cells.