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Now Check Your Answers. 1. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? Hypothesis = a testable explanation for an observation Theory = a.

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Presentation on theme: "Now Check Your Answers. 1. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? Hypothesis = a testable explanation for an observation Theory = a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Now Check Your Answers

2 1. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? Hypothesis = a testable explanation for an observation Theory = a WELL tested explanation for a BROAD range of observations

3 2. How does the scientist’s use of the word “theory” differ from the way the term is used by the general public? 2. How does the scientist’s use of the word “theory” differ from the way the term is used by the general public? In SCIENCE the word “theory” means that which we are MOST certain. It is the BEST current explanation. To the general public “theory” means a guess or opinion.

4 3. How do scientist determine if the conclusions drawn from an experiment are valid? Experiments must be checked and rechecked by other scientists to be sure the same results are obtained by others.

5 Smithers thinks that a special juice will increase the productivity of workers. He creates two groups of 50 workers each and assigns each group the same task (in this case, they're supposed to staple a set of papers). Group A is given the special juice to drink while they work. Group B is not given the special juice. After an hour, Smithers counts how many stacks of papers each group has made. Group A made 1,587 stacks, Group B made 2,113 stacks. 4. What is the control group? Group B – the one with no juice (the one without the treatment – the one used for comparison)

6 5. What are three ways this picture shows that eukaryotic cells are different from prokaryotic cells? 1. Prokaryotic are smaller than Eukaryotic 2. Prokaryotic do not have a nucleus, Eukaryotic do 3. Prokaryotic do not have membrane bound organelles like mitochondria, Eukaryotic do have mitochondria and other organelles

7 KingdomPro-/Eu- karyotic Auto-/Hetero- trophic Multi/Uni- cellular Animal EukaryoticHeterotrophicMulticellular Plant EukaryoticAutotrophicMulticellular Fungi EukaryoticHeterotrophicMulticellular (Unicellular) Protist EukaryoticAuto- or Hetero- Unicellular (Multicellular) EubacteriaProkaryoticAuto- or Hetero- Unicellular ArchaebacteriaProkaryoticAuto- or Hetero- Unicellular 6. Complete and Know the following table:

8 7. What are the three parts of the ? = Living things are made of cells = Cells do all the functions in living things = Cells come only from other living cells

9 8. Name the cell part shown above and give its function. Chloroplast – where photosynthesis occurs = where plant makes its food

10 9. Name the organelle shown at left and tell its function. Mitochondrion = where cellular respiration occurs in plants and animals = where energy is released from food

11 10. What are these small but numerous structures? What is their function? ribosomes Where protein is assembled

12 11. Of what is this a close-up view? 12. What is the main function of this structure? Cell Membrane Controls what gets in and out of a cell

13 13. Define diffusion. Answer: The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration using their own kinetic energy.

14 14. Which of these would diffuse the fastest? and why? water, ice or steam Answer: steam, because gas molecules move faster than liquid or solid (They have more kinetic energy) Answer: steam, because gas molecules move faster than liquid or solid (They have more kinetic energy)

15 15. Give an example of a solid diffusing through a liquid. Ex. sugar diffusing through coffee, purple crystal through water, etc. Ex. sugar diffusing through coffee, purple crystal through water, etc.

16 16. How are facilitated diffusion and active transport similar? How are they different? Answer: They both use proteins in the membrane. Facilitated diffusion uses kinetic energy and goes from high to low concentration. active transport uses ATP energy and goes from low to high.

17 17. If a cell has.4% K + on the inside and.3% on the outside, how would K + move INTO the cell? Answer: active transport.4% K +.3% K + ??

18 18. What type of energy is required to move molecules by active transport? Answer: ATP Energy = Cell Energy

19 19. Which of these shows -active transport? -diffusion? -facilitated diffusion? -osmosis? -passive transport? ABCABC C A & B B cannot tell which is water A & B

20 20. If a molecule is too big to pass through the protein channels in a membrane, how can they get out of a cell? Answer: exocytosis

21 21. If a molecule is too big to pass through the protein channels in a membrane, how can they get into a cell? Answer: endocytosis

22 22. Define homeostasis. Answer: keeping the same internally

23 IN CELL 70% water IN ENVIRONMENT 66% water 23. Which way will the water move? Will the cell shrink, swell or stay the same? Both directions. But net movement will be OUT of the cell. Shrink

24 24. If a cell has.3% Ca +2 on the inside and.4% on the outside, how would Ca +2 move into the cell? Answer: diffusion.3% Ca +2 ??.4% Ca +2

25 99% water 100% water 99% water 95% water 99% water 99% water 25. In which of these is the concentration gradient the greatest? A BC B The gradient in A = 1%, B = 4%, C=0. In which of these are the cells and their environment at equilibrium? C Which of these pictures show osmosis? Explain! A & B show the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane.

26 a. = meiosis b. = fertilization c. = mitosis 26. What process occurs at a? b? and c? If the cells in the adult fish have 60 chromosomes, how many chromosomes are present in the cells at step 2? 30 chromosomes 26.

27 27. If the chimp zygote has 48 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will be present in each cell after mitosis occurs? 48 chromosomes In zygote 48 chromosomes in cells after mitosis mitosis

28 28. Draw a chromosome and show what two types of macromolecule it is made of. Then label a gene in your drawing. Protein Two types of macromolecule Gene = a segment of DNA

29 29. What is the relationship between DNA, genes and proteins? Answer: Genes are sections of DNA that code for proteins.


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