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Cell Structure – Types of Cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells are able to isolate the chemical reactions for life from the outside environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure – Types of Cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells are able to isolate the chemical reactions for life from the outside environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure – Types of Cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells are able to isolate the chemical reactions for life from the outside environment Cells are able to isolate the chemical reactions for life from the outside environment Cells have an outer membrane that will only allow certain types of chemicals to pass through Cells have an outer membrane that will only allow certain types of chemicals to pass through Paul Pursglove – The Pterosaur Database OCR Biology - AS

2 Cell Structure – Types of Cells From GCSE – you should be able to label this simple cell diagram; Cytoplasm Plasma Membrane Nucleus Mitochondrion

3 Cell Structure – Types of Cells There are three types of cell that you need to know about. 1. Prokaryotic cells (think of bacteria) 2. Animal cells (your own body cells) 3. Plant cells (yummy cabbage ) Animal and plant cells are Eukaryotic cells. Animal and plant cells are Eukaryotic cells.

4 What the syllabus says! Describe the structure of a prokaryotic cell and compare and contrast the structure of prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells. Describe the structure of a prokaryotic cell and compare and contrast the structure of prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells. Describe the structure and outline the function of the main organelles of eukaryotic cells – (The list of structures is given in the syllabus) Describe the structure and outline the function of the main organelles of eukaryotic cells – (The list of structures is given in the syllabus)

5 Prokaryotic cells Small single cells with no nucleus. Small single cells with no nucleus. No membrane bound organelles No membrane bound organelles Granular cytoplasm Granular cytoplasm Small free ribosomes Small free ribosomes Divide by binary-fission Divide by binary-fission

6 Prokaryotic cells Plasma Membrane Cell Wall Granular Cytoplasm Loop of DNA Free Ribosomes

7 Prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells are primitive single celled organisms. When they divide, they produce clones – identical genetic copies of the original cell. These cells need moist and warm conditions in order to reproduce quickly. Most types are auto-chemotrophes, obtaining nutrients by digesting organic substances using enzymes within a slime capsule around the cell wall. (this is grade A-C stuff)

8 The terminology auto-chemotrophes auto-chemotrophes Obtain nutrients automatically when the correct chemicals are available organic substances organic substances Are elements and compounds that are used in living organisms, for the processes of life. enzymes enzymes Are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions slime capsule slime capsule Is a region around a bacteria cell that contains catalytic enzymes for digesting organic molecules.

9 Eukaryotic Cells These include Animal cells and Plant cells. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus They also have membrane bound organelles Plant cells have “extra bits” to animal cells

10 Eukaryotic cell organelles 1.Plasma membrane 2.Nucleus 3.Nucleolus 4.Mitochondrion 5.Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 6.Ribosome 7.Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 8.Golgi Apparatus 9.Lysosome 10.Cilia Make a list of these organelles.

11 Tasks - Aarghh! Work… 1. Make notes on the organelles listed. 2. Show the structure of each organelle. 3. State the function of each organelle. 4. Find out what other organelles a plant cell has and do the same for those organelles. You will be examined on structure and function of cell organelles.


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