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The Diversity of Prokaryotic Organisms

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Presentation on theme: "The Diversity of Prokaryotic Organisms"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Diversity of Prokaryotic Organisms
Chapter 11

2 Domains Bacteria and Archaea
One circular chromosome not in a membrane 70S ribosomes No membrane-bound organelles Binary fission rRNA provides evidence of phylogenic differences between the 2 Domains

3 Domain Bacteria Proteobacteria
Includes most of the gram-negative bacteria Phylogeny based on rRNA studies Common photosynthetic ancestor few are still photosynthetic Mythical Greek god, Proteus Largest taxonomic group of bacteria Classes designated by Greek letters

4 The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
Some grow at low nutrient levels Some have unusual morphology Many are agriculturally important several medically important genra

5 The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
Human pathogens: Bartonella - bacillus Cat-scratch disease

6 Obligate intracellular parasite:
Rickettsia – bacillus or coccobacilli Arthropod-borne cause spotted fevers R. typhi - Endemic murine typhus (fleas) R. rickettsii - Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (ticks)

7 Have prosthecae: Caulobacter Hyphomicrobium
Stalked bacteria found in low nutrient aquatic environment Hyphomicrobium Budding bacteria found in low nutrient environment

8 Pelagibacter Very small with tiny genome
P. ubique is abundant marine microbe

9 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Azospirillum
Grows in association with tropical grasses and sugar cane Rhizobia Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium Infects roots of legumes forming root nodules

10 Nitrifying bacteria : Chemoautotrophs Oxidize nitrogen
Nitrosomonas NH4+  NO2– (ammonium to nitrite) Nitrobacter NO2–  NO3– (nitrite to nitrate)

11 Plant pathogen: Agrobacterium
Inserts plasmid into plant cells, inducing tumors Crown gall

12 Produce acetic acid from ethyl alcohol:
Acetobacter Gluconobacter

13 Wolbachia Most common infectious bacteria
Endosymbionts of insects and other animals

14 The  (beta) Proteobacteria
Utilize nutrients diffusing from areas of decomposition of organic matter hydrogen gas, ammonia, and methane

15 Thiobacillus Sphaerotilus Chemoautotroph, oxidizes sulfur: H2S  SO42–
- hollow sheath - polar flagella - problem in sewage

16 Spirillum Large, aerobic freshwater bacterium

17 Neisseria N. meningitidis Meningococcal meningitis N. gonorrhoeae

18 Bordetella B. pertussis - whooping cough
Aerobic, rods or coccobacillus B. pertussis - whooping cough

19 The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
Largest subgroup Great variety of physiological types Includes the enterics

20 Azotobacter and Azomonas
Beggiatoa Chemoautotroph, oxidize H2S to S0 Gliding motility Beggiatoa alba is only species Azotobacter and Azomonas Nitrogen fixing, free-living soil bacteria Large ovoid cell with heavy capsule

21 Francisella Francisella tularensis – tularemia (rabbit fever)
Pleomorphic Francisella tularensis – tularemia (rabbit fever) Resistant to many antibiotics

22 Pseudomonas Aerobic rods; Polar flagella
Extra-cellular and/or florescent pigments Opportunistic pathogen Metabolize wide variety of substrates Resistant to many anti-microbials Denitrification

23 Legionella L. pneumophilia
Found in streams, warm-water pipes, cooling towers L. pneumophilia Causes a form of pneumonia called legionellosis Survive inside aquatic amoeba

24 Coxiella Coxiella burnetii Q fever Obligate intracellular pathogen
transmitted via aerosols or milk Resistant spore–like body

25 Vibrio Vibrio cholerae V. parahaemolyticus
Facultative anaerobic vibrio Vibrio cholerae Cholera Dysentery V. parahaemolyticus Less severe gastroenteritis Undercooked shellfish

26 Pasteurella P. multocidia - carried by Komodo dragon
mainly pathogens of domestic animals Cause pneumonia and septicemia passed to humans from cat and dog bites P. multocidia - carried by Komodo dragon

27 Haemophilus H. ducreyi H. influenzae
inhabit mucous membranes of upper respiratory tract, mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract require heme fraction (X factor) and NAD cofactor (V factor) H. ducreyi Chancroid (STD) H. influenzae meningitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, septic arthritis, earaches

28 Enterobacteriales (enterics):
Facultatively anaerobic, rods Peritrichous flagella Most ferment glucose and other sugars Inhabit intestinal tract of animals (humans)

29 Enterics Escherichia Salmonella S. enterica – 2400 servors
Coliforms – fecal contamination UTI and Travelers Diarrhea Food poisoning – E. coli 0157:H7 Salmonella S. enterica – 2400 servors S. enterica servor typhi – typhoid fever

30 Enterics Shigella Klebsiella K. pneumoniae – serious form of pneumonia
Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) Klebsiella K. pneumoniae – serious form of pneumonia Some species fix nitrogen

31 Enterics Yersinia Proteus Y. pestis – plague Swarmer cells
UTI and wound infections

32 The  (delta) Proteobacteria
Some species are predators on other bacteria Important contributors to the sulfur cycle

33 Bdellovibrio Aerobic, rod with polar flagella
attack other gram (-) bacteria similar to the way a virus would

34 Desulfovibrio Human intestinal tract and anaerobic sediments
obligate anaerobe, sulfur reducing bacteria Use S for final electron acceptor Release tons of H2S annually

35 Myxococcus Gliding motility Feed on bacteria they encounter
Cells aggregate to form fruiting body loaded with myxospores

36 The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria
Microaerophilic, helical or vibrioid rods Motile by means of flagella

37 Campylobacter Helicobacter C. fetus C. jejuni H. pylori
causes spontaneous abortion in domestic animals C. jejuni leading cause of bacterial diarrhea Helicobacter H. pylori common cause of stomach ulcers

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