We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byFabian Tonge
Modified about 1 year ago
1 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008
2 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008
3 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is a cell? Cells are the basic unit of life. They are small membrane- bound structures containing several smaller structures called organelles. eukaryotic cell, including the cells of animals and plants prokaryotic cell, including bacterial cells. There are two main categories of cell, each of which have important different structural properties:
4 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 A brief history
5 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The cell membrane and cytoplasm All cells, and all true organelles, are contained within a membrane, based on a phospholipid bilayer. The cell membrane holds a cell together and controls what enters and leaves the cytoplasm, as it is a selectively permeable barrier. The cell membrane and cytoplasm are universal features of the living cell. The cytoplasm comprises a liquid called cytosol, and all the organelles suspended in it (except the nucleus in eukaryotes).
6 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The universal energy carrier Cells need a constant supply of energy to carry out vital processes such as protein synthesis, DNA replication and cell division. This energy originally comes from fuel molecules, such as glucose, consumed by the organism. These are broken down during aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and the energy released is used to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP diffuses throughout the cell, and breaks down into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), releasing chemical energy wherever it is needed. ATP ADP
7 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2007
8 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is a eukaryote? A eukaryote is any organism consisting of one or more cells that contain DNA in a membrane-bound nucleus, separate from the cytoplasm. plants a diverse group known as the protists (or protoctists). All eukaryotic cells contain a large number of specialized, membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes include: fungi animals
9 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The organelles of protein synthesis
10 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Mitochondria The mitochondrion is an energy-generating organelle. The inner membrane is coated in enzymes, which catalyze the reactions of aerobic respiration to produce ATP. It is surrounded by two membranes. The inner layer folds inwards to form the cristae. The cristae project into a liquid called the matrix. outer membrane matrix inner membrane cristae
11 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Microtubules and the cytoskeleton
12 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Which organelle?
13 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Plant cells Plant cells share all the common features of animal cells, but also contain some additional organelles. Plants gain all their energy from sunlight; cells in their leaves contain many chloroplasts to convert this into a useful form. Every plant cell is surrounded by a cell wall, and contains one or more permanent vacuoles. chloroplast vacuole cell wall
14 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Chloroplasts Chloroplasts use carbon dioxide, water and light energy to build sugars. They are present in all green plants. The chloroplast is surrounded by a double membrane. It is filled with a liquid called the stroma, and contains stacks of thylakoid membranes called grana. stroma thylakoid membrane The thylakoid membranes are the site of photosynthesis. grana
15 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Permanent vacuoles only exist in plant cells. Animal cells can contain temporary vacuoles but they are not common features. A vacuole consists of a membrane called the tonoplast, filled with cell sap – a watery solution of different substances, including sugars, enzymes and pigments. The vacuole is important in keeping the cell firm. When the vacuole is full of sap the cell is said to be turgid. Vacuoles
16 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The cell wall does not seal off a cell completely from its neighbours. There are pores within the walls called plasmodesmata. These connect two cells together by their cytoplasm, enabling the exchange and transport of substances. The cell wall The cell wall of a plant cell gives it support and structure. It is made of the polysaccharide cellulose, and can function as a carbohydrate store by varying the amount of cellulose it holds.
17 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Eukaryotic organelles
18 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2007
19 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is a prokaryote? A prokaryote is any organism – usually single-celled – whose DNA is suspended freely in the cytoplasm. The word means ‘before the nucleus’. bacteria archaea. Prokaryotes have simpler structure than eukaryotes, lacking organelles such as the nucleus, ER and Golgi. Prokaryotes can be divided into two groups:
20 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Features of the bacteria and archaea
21 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Bacterial capsules Many pathogenic bacteria are surrounded by a mucous-like protective layer called a capsule. The capsule is usually composed of polysaccharides, and also contains water to protect against desiccation (drying out). capsulecell wall The capsule protects bacteria from viruses, or attack from a host organism’s immune system, by hiding antigens on the cell surface.
22 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Some prokaryotic cells feature one or more flagella. These are long helical tubes extending out of the cell wall, which rotate to provide locomotion. Flagella and pili Many bacteria also feature pili. These are hollow protein structures used during bacterial conjugation – the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another. Flagella are powered by protein motors and can propel bacteria at a rate of more than 50 lengths per second.
23 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Plasmids Bacterial cells often contain several plasmids – small continuous loops of DNA. Plasmids are replicated independently of a bacterium’s genophore (e.g. during bacterial conjugation), and may confer an advantage, such as antibiotic resistance. Plasmids are commonly used in genetic engineering to make copies of genes or large quantities of proteins or hormones. pilus draws bacteria together replication of plasmid
24 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Structure of a bacterium
25 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2007
26 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 How small is a cell?
27 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Light microscopes Light (or optical) microscopes use lenses to project a magnified image of an object onto the eye. Light microscopes are limited to a magnification of 1500× by their resolving power (resolution). This is a measure of their ability to distinguish between two separate points. A light microscope cannot resolve two points that are closer than half a wavelength of visible light (250 nm). Magnification is a measure of how many times bigger the image is than the object: size of image actual size of the object magnification =
28 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Virtual microscope
29 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Electron microscopes
30 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Preparing a specimen for microscopy Electron microscopes contain a vacuum as air particles would interfere with the beam of electrons. Optical microscopes can be used to view living specimens. Coloured dyes (stains) can be used to make specific structures more visible under a light microscope. Water boils at room temperature in a vacuum, so the specimen must be dried out completely (dead).
31 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Extracting organelles from cells
32 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Microscope characteristics
33 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2007
34 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Glossary
35 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What’s the keyword?
36 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes
37 of 37© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Multiple-choice quiz
1 of 10© Boardworks Ltd of 10© Boardworks Ltd 2015 What is a eukaryote? A eukaryote is any organism consisting of one or more cells that contain.
1 of 7© Boardworks Ltd of 7© Boardworks Ltd 2009 What is a prokaryote? A prokaryote is any organism – usually single-celled – whose DNA is suspended.
Which organelle?. Division of Labour and Cell types How are Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes different?
1 of 10© Boardworks Ltd of 10© Boardworks Ltd 2009 What is a cell? Multicellular organisms consists of many cells – humans are made from an estimated.
Cells – Animal, Plant, Eukaryote, Prokaryote Make a model cell. In groups – animal or plant cell Design a mark scheme to assess the model.
How do you know if something is living? M R S G R E N.
Cell Types and Cell Structure. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic no nucleus no membrane enclosed organelles single chromosome no streaming in the cytoplasm cell.
Cell Structures and Organelles. Cell Membrane Found: All Cells Location: Outer part of the cell Structure: Phospholipid bilayer Fluid, flexible Function/
Cell Organelles © J Beauchemin Cell Organelles Organelle= “little organ” All the stuff in between the organelles is cytosol Everything in a cell.
Cell Organelles What is an organelle? An organelle is a tiny body inside a cell that performs a specialized cell function. Just like the organs in.
CELL THEORY All organisms are composed of cells The cell is the smallest unit of living matter Cells arise from pre-existing cells Information.
Cells Structures and Functions Summarize the structure and function of organelles in eukaryotic cells (including: the nucleus, plasma membrane, cell.
Small membrane-bound structures located within the eukaryotic cell that each have a specific function.
© Boardworks Ltd of 39. © Boardworks Ltd of 39.
Living Things and Cells Structures that make things be “alive”
Chapter 3 Section 1 Pg. 50. Robert Hooke English scientist Discovered cells in 1665.
A View Of The Cell. Simple light microscope – one lens ◦ Anton van Leeuwenhoek: 1600’s Compound light microscope – multiple lenses ◦ Maximum Magnification:
Chapter two page 23. Cell theory- states that all living things consist of one or more organised structures that are called cells. Cells are the basic.
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate This is the fuel for a cell that powers almost all reactions inside a cell. It is manufactured by photosynthesis at Thylakoid.
Eukaryotic Cell Structure Each component of a eukaryotic cell has a specific job, and all of the parts of the cell work together to help the cell survive.
Cells and Their Amazing Organelles. Cells can be … Prokaryotic - no membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic - membrane bound organelles.
Cells - Structure and Function of Organelles. Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Prokaryotic organisms are single-celled bacteria that evolved early and are very.
Chapter 4. All living organisms are made up of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms. All cells come from.
3.1 Cell Theory KEY CONCEPT Cells are the Basic unit of life.
Chapter 6 Jeopardy Definitions 6.5 & Definitions 6.6 & Focus Ons
CELLS BY: MS. REIS. Prokaryotic Cells Does not have a “true” nucleus Lacks membrane bound organelles Usually unicellular Bacteria are prokaryotic.
Lysosome Cytoskeleton To Plant Cell Click on the name of each organelle to learn about its structure and function.
1 The Cell The basic unit of life. 2 Contents The Light Microscope Electron Microscope The Cell Cell Ultrastructure Cell membrane The Cell Wall Mitochondria.
LG 1- Cell Structure and Function Things Common to All Cells Genetic Material – Cytoplasm – Plasma Membrane – Cell Types Prokaryotes – Eukaryotes – The.
Eukaryotic Cell Structure. Cell Wall Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists. Found in cells of plants, fungi, bacteria, and some.
7.1 The discovery of cells?. Do Now: Copy the following in chronological order _1838-Matthias Schleiden- observed plant cells _1650s Anton van Leewenhoek.
1 Basic Structure of a Cell. 2 Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of.
Cells Bio 1 Mr. Hellmer. What is a cell? Basic functional, structural, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Surrounded by a membrane (lipid.
The Cell. 2 Major Types Prokaryotic- Mainly bacteria or cells without a nucleus Genetic material floats in the cytoplasm Do not have many of the.
What is a Cell? Cell – a membrane-bound structure that is the basic unit of life. What is required to be a cell? *All cells MUST have the following: 1)
Cell Structure and Function Chapter 7 Vocab Review
Q. Which organelle is responsible for cellular respiration? A. mitochondria Q. Where are the signals for self recognition located? A. On the outer surface.
St. Bonaventure College and High School Form 4 Biology Bridging Course Cell structure.
Unit 2: The Cell KEY CONCEPT Eukaryotic cells share many similarities.
1 Basic Structure of a Cell copyright cmassengale.
Cell Theory Cells Cells are the basic living units of organization and function come from other cells All cells come from other cells Schleiden, Schwann,
4.2 INTRODUCTION TO CELLS. CELL DIVERSITY (SHAPE) Cells come in a variety of shapes The shape typically reflects the function of the cell Consider.
A View of the Cell Chapter 7 Notes. Microscopes The microscope was invented by Leeuwenhoek. A compound light microscope has a series of lenses and.
Tour Of The Cell. Microscopy What is the difference between magnification and resolving power? Magnification is how much larger the object can now appear.
Has resolution that is sufficient to view images up to 0.2 micrometers, due to the limitations of the wavelength of light. Scientists ran in to problems.
TWO CATAGORIES FOR DISTINGUISHING CELL TYPE Prokaryotic Eukaryotic.
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles. Lesson Objectives Identify the structure and function of the parts of a typical eukaryotic cell. Compare and contrast structures.
Biology Review Part 1 B.4B – Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules,
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.