2Chapter 18 Bacteria and Viruses Section 1: BacteriaSection 2: Viruses and Prions
3Diversity of Prokaryotes Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaDiversity of ProkaryotesBacteria are microscopic organisms that are prokaryotes.Prokaryotes are divided into two domains—the Domain Bacteria (eubacteria) and the Domain Archaea (archaebacteria).Option 1
5Contain peptidoglycan Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaEubacteriaVery strong cell wallsContain peptidoglycanSome have a second cell wall
6Halophiles (HA luh filz) live in very salty environments. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaArchaebacteriaThermoacidophiles (thur muh uh SIH duh filz) live in hot, acidic environments.Halophiles (HA luh filz) live in very salty environments.Methanogens (meh THAHN oh jenz) cannot live in the presence of oxygen.
7Differences Between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaDifferences Between Eubacteria and ArchaebacteriaThe cell walls of the eubacteria contain peptidoglycan, but the cell walls of archaebacteria do not.The two groups of organisms have different lipids in their plasma membranes.Different ribosomal proteins and RNA
8Prokaryotes are microscopic, unicellular organisms. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaProkaryote StructureProkaryotes are microscopic, unicellular organisms.They have some characteristics of all cells, such as DNA and ribosomes.Lack a nuclear membrane and other membrane-bound organelles
9Chromosomes Capsule Pili Size 18.1 Bacteria Chapter 18 Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaChromosomesCapsulePiliSize
11Eubacterial cells have peptidoglycan. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaCell WallsEubacterial cells have peptidoglycan.Dyes added to the bacteria identify those with and those without an outer layer of lipid.
12Prokaryotic flagella are made of filaments. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaMovementProkaryotic flagella are made of filaments.Flagella help prokaryotes to move toward materials that they need to survive.
13Reproduction of Prokaryotes Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaReproduction of ProkaryotesBinary FissionDivision of a cell into two genetically identical cellsConjugationTwo prokaryotes attach to each other and exchange genetic information.
14Carry out photosynthesis in a similar manner as plants Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaPhotoautotrophsCarry out photosynthesis in a similar manner as plantsChemoautotrophsBreak down and release inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen or sulfurAerobes and AnaerobesObligate aerobes are bacteria that require oxygen to grow.Anaerobic bacteria do not use oxygen for growth or metabolism.
15Survival of Bacteria Endospores Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaSurvival of BacteriaEndosporesResistant to harsh environments and might be able to survive extreme heat, extreme cold, dehydration, and large amounts of ultraviolet radiation
16Bacteria reproduce quickly and their population grows rapidly. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaMutationsBacteria reproduce quickly and their population grows rapidly.Mutations lead to new forms of genes, new gene combinations, new characteristics, and genetic diversity.
17Nutrient cycling and nitrogen fixation Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaEcology of BacteriaNutrient cycling and nitrogen fixationBacteria are decomposers, returning vital nutrients to the environment.Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in a symbiotic relationship in the root nodules of plants such as soybeans, clover, and alfalfa.
18Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaNormal FloraMost of the bacteria that live in or on you are harmless and are called normal flora.21,674xE. coli
19Some foods are made with the aid of bacteria. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaFoods and MedicinesSome foods are made with the aid of bacteria.cheeseyogurtbuttermilkpicklesvitamins
20Disease-causing Bacteria Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 BacteriaDisease-causing BacteriaA small percentage of bacteria cause disease.Bacteria multiply quickly at the site of infection.Bacteria secrete a toxin.
22A nonliving strand of genetic material within a protein coat Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Viruses and PrionsVirusesA nonliving strand of genetic material within a protein coatNo organelles to take in nutrients or use energyCannot make proteinsCannot moveCannot replicate on their ownMost viruses range in size from 5 to 300 nanometers.
23Viruses came from parts of cells. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Viruses and PrionsVirus OriginViruses came from parts of cells.Genetic material of viruses is similar to cellular genes.
24In order to replicate, a virus must enter a host cell. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Viruses and PrionsViral InfectionIn order to replicate, a virus must enter a host cell.The virus attaches to the host cell using specific receptors on the plasma membrane.Many viruses cannot be transmitted between different species.
26The host cell makes many copies of the viral RNA or DNA. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Viruses and PrionsLytic CycleThe host cell makes many copies of the viral RNA or DNA.Lysogenic CycleViral DNA inserts, or integrates into a chromosome in a host cell.Infected cell will have the viral genes permanently.
27Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Viruses and Prions
29Viruses that have RNA instead of DNA for their genetic material Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Viruses and PrionsRetrovirusesViruses that have RNA instead of DNA for their genetic materialRetroviruses have a protein capsid.Lipid envelope is obtained from the plasma membrane of a host cell
31Prions normally exist in cells. Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Viruses and PrionsPrionsProtein that can cause infection or disease is called a proteinaceous infectious particle, or prion.Prions normally exist in cells.Associated with diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
32Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Bacteria and VirusesChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
33Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhat type of bacteria exists in salty environments, such as the Great Salt Lake?eubacteriahalophilesmethanogensthermoacidophilesABCDCDQ 1
34Name the structures on the outer surface Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesChapter Diagnostic QuestionsName the structures on the outer surfaceof a bacterium that serve as a bridgebetween cells.flagellaplasma membranepiliribosomesABCDCDQ 2
35How do saprotrophs obtain energy? Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesChapter Diagnostic QuestionsHow do saprotrophs obtain energy?photosynthesisconsuming oxygenproduce their own fooddecompose organic materialABCDCDQ 3
36In which domain are the eubacteria? Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 Formative QuestionsIn which domain are the eubacteria?ArchaeaBacteriaEukaryaProtistaABCDFQ 1
37Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 Formative QuestionsWhich group of organisms includes thermoacidophiles, halophiles and methanogens?adenobacteriaarchaebacteriabacteriachemoautotrophsABCDFQ 2
38What material is found in eubacteria but not in archaebacteria? Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 Formative QuestionsWhat material is found in eubacteria butnot in archaebacteria?lipidpeptidoglycanribosomal proteinRNAABCDFQ 3
39What cell structure helps shelter bacteria Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 Formative QuestionsWhat cell structure helps shelter bacteriafrom the effects of antibiotics?capsulenucleoidplasmidplasma membraneABCDFQ 4
40What is the term for bacteria that have this shape? Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the term for bacteria that have this shape?bacillicoccipilispirilliABCDFQ 5
41What occurs during conjugation? Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.1 Formative QuestionsWhat occurs during conjugation?attachment to a host cellproduction of offspringspore germinationtransfer of genetic materialABCDFQ 6
42Why are viruses considered to be nonliving? Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Formative QuestionsWhy are viruses considered to be nonliving?They act as parasites in cells.They are too small to be alive.They cannot replicate on their own.They do not contain genetic material.ABCDFQ 7
43A B Smallpox has been eliminated worldwide Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Formative QuestionsSmallpox has been eliminated worldwideand routine vaccination for the disease hasstopped.TrueFalseABFQ 8
44What type of virus inserts RNA and reverse transcriptase into cells? Chapter 18Bacteria and Viruses18.2 Formative QuestionsWhat type of virus inserts RNA and reversetranscriptase into cells?adenovirusbacteriophageprionretrovirusABCDFQ 9
46ribosomes plasma membrane pili capsule Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesChapter Assessment QuestionsIdentify the structure of this prokaryotic cell that prevents it from drying out.ribosomesplasma membranepilicapsuleABCDCAQ 1
47What process of reproduction is shown here? Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat process of reproduction is shown here?nuclear fusionconjugationbinary fissionbuddingABCDCAQ 2
48Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesChapter Assessment QuestionsUse the figure to determine what process this bacterial cell is undergoing.mutationendospore productionreproductionphotosynthesisABCDCAQ 3
49Before prescribing an antibiotic, what does a Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesStandardized Test PracticeBefore prescribing an antibiotic, what does aphysician need to know about the bacteriacausing the infection?the shape of the bacteriathe type of cell wall the bacteria havethe type of pili and flagella the bacteria havewhether they are eubacteria or archaebacteriaABCDSTP 1
50What process is taking place here? Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesStandardized Test PracticeWhat process is taking place here?mitosisconjugationbinary fissionendospore formationABCDSTP 2
51Which type of prokaryotes are most likely Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesStandardized Test PracticeWhich type of prokaryotes are most likelyto be found in the deepest depths of theocean?chemifacultrophschemoautotrophsobligoheterotrophsphotoautotrophsABCDSTP 3
52What survival characteristic of bacteria has Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesStandardized Test PracticeWhat survival characteristic of bacteria hasrequired the development of new and harsherantibiotics for fighting bacterial infections?endospore formationfast population growthhigh mutation raterapid reproductionABCDSTP 4
53Why would you not want your mouth to be free of bacteria? Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesStandardized Test PracticeWhy would you not want your mouth to be freeof bacteria?They break down the sugar that causes cavities.They compete with harmful bacteria that cause disease.They produce useful enzymes for digestion.They produce vitamins that your body needs.ABCDSTP 5
54For which virus is there not yet a vaccine? Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesStandardized Test PracticeFor which virus is there not yet a vaccine?HIVpoliorabiessmallpoxABCDSTP 6
55What type of infection is caused by a virus Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesStandardized Test PracticeWhat type of infection is caused by a virusthat replicates by the lysogenic cycle?active infectionpassive infectionadvanced infectionlatent infectionABCDSTP 7
56Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 18Bacteria and VirusesGlencoe Biology Transparencies