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3.1 Cell Theory KEY CONCEPT Cells are the Basic unit of life.

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Presentation on theme: "3.1 Cell Theory KEY CONCEPT Cells are the Basic unit of life."— Presentation transcript:

1 3.1 Cell Theory KEY CONCEPT Cells are the Basic unit of life.

2 3.1 Cell Theory The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Many scientists contributed to the cell theory.

3 3.1 Cell Theory The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Many scientists contributed to the cell theory. More was learned about cells as microscopes improved.

4 3.1 Cell Theory The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Many scientists contributed to the cell theory. More was learned about cells as microscopes improved. The cell theory is a unifying concept of biology.

5 3.1 Cell Theory Robert Hooke 1665 Observes holes in cork under microsocope. Names the spaces “cells” as they remind him of the small rooms found in a religious monastery Really was observing empty spaces where cells were before dying

6 3.1 Cell Theory Anton von Leeuwonhoek (just call me Tony) Dutch lens maker First to observe and describe single-celled organisms,single-celled organisms which he originally referred to as animalcules animalcules and cavorting beastiescavorting beasties Today we call what he saw microorganisms – bacteria and protists Was also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels). musclebacteriaspermatozoabloodcapillariesblood vessels

7 3.1 Cell Theory Robert Brown Robby Bobby said – “That dark structure found inside many cells should be called a Nucleus”

8 3.1 Cell Theory Theodore Schleiden Ted said - “All plants are composed of cells”

9 3.1 Cell Theory Matthias Schwann Matt knew where it was at when he declared “ALL animals (like swans) are made of cells”

10 3.1 Cell Theory Rudolf Virchow Rejected the concept of spontaneous generation, which held that organisms could arise from nonliving matter spontaneously. Rudy’s Rule: “All cells come from other cells”

11 3.1 Cell Theory Early studies led to the development of the cell theory. The Cell theory has three principles. –All organisms are made of cells.

12 3.1 Cell Theory Early studies led to the development of the cell theory. The Cell theory has three principles. –All organisms are made of cells. –All existing cells are produced by other living cells.

13 3.1 Cell Theory Early studies led to the development of the cell theory. The Cell theory has three principles. – –All organisms are made of cells. – –All existing cells are produced by other living cells. – –The cell is the most basic unit of life.

14 3.1 Cell Theory There are thousands of different types of cells that make up living organisms.

15 3.1 Cell Theory All cells share some characteristics Most cells are microscopic. Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x)

16 3.1 Cell Theory All cells share some characteristics Most cells are microscopic All cells are enclosed by a membrane Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) cell membrane

17 3.1 Cell Theory All cells share some characteristics Most cells are microscopic All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane All cells are filled with cytoplasm (gel like substance mostly made of water) Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) cell membrane cytoplasm

18 3.1 Cell Theory All cells share some characteristics Most cells are microscopic All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane All cells are filled with cytoplasm (gel like substance mostly made of water) All cells have genetic information Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) cell membrane cytoplasm

19 3.1 Cell Theory All cells share some characteristics Most cells are microscopic All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane All cells are filled with cytoplasm (gel like substance mostly made of water) All cells have genetic information Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) cell membrane cytoplasm

20 3.1 Cell Theory Main Idea#2: Cells can be separated into two broad categories based on their internal structure. 2 Basic Cell Types: Eukaryotic cells and Prokaryotic cells. 1. Prokaryotic Cells These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or organelles 2.Eukaryotic Cells These cells DO have a TRUE nucleus and organelles

21 3.1 Cell Theory Eukarytic Cells Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus. nucleus cell membrane

22 3.1 Cell Theory Two major cell types: Eukaryotic cells and Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles. nucleus cell membrane organelles

23 3.1 Cell Theory Two major cell types: Eukaryotic cells and Prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. nucleus cell membrane organelles

24 3.1 Cell Theory Two major cell types: Eukaryotic cells and Prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles. nucleus cell membrane organelles cytoplasm

25 3.1 Cell Theory Eukaryotes are organisms made of Eukaryotic cells Organisms that have Eukaryotic cells include: Protists Fungi Plants Animals

26 3.1 Cell Theory Organisms are made of either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells Prokaryotes are organisms made of Prokaryotic cells Organisms that have Prokaryotic cells include: Bacteria (2 groups: Archaea, Bacteria) Eukaryotes are organisms made of Eukaryotic cells Organisms that have Eukaryotic cells include: Protists Fungi Plants Animals

27 3.1 Cell Theory Prokaryotic Cells No Nucleus No membrane surrounded organelles Smaller Single celled/ Unicellular Found in bacteria, archaea Circular DNA Eukaryotic Cells Nucleus Membrane surrounded organelles Larger Single or Multicellular Found in protists, fungi, plant and animals DNA + proteins=Chromosomes

28 3.1 Cell Theory Fossil Evidence of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells PROKARYOTES Photosynthetic marine bacteria 3.5 Billion Years Ago EUKARYOTES Evolved 1.5 billion yrs ago First ones were unicellular Later cells became multicellular

29 3.1 Cell Theory Endosymbiotic Theory Developed in the 1970’s Endosymbiosis- a relationship in which one organism lives within the body of another and both benefit from relationship. Early mitochondria and chloroplasts were once simple prokaryotic cells that were taken up by larger prokaryotes around 1.5 bya. Some of the smaller prokaryotes may have survived inside the larger ones. Both strutures helped the larger cell get energy. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own DNA & ribosomes, can copy themselves

30 3.1 Cell Theory Endosymbiosis

31 3.1 Cell Theory Parts of a Prokaryotic Cell

32 3.1 Cell Theory Prokaryotic Cell Structures and their Functions A.Plasma Membrane – Protective coating surrounding the cytoplasm that regulates(controls) what enters/leaves cell. Archaea have special lipids in their membranes not found in any other type of organism on Earth. B. Cell Wall – Covering outside the cell membrane. Bacteria have peptidoglycan molecules, Archaea don’t C. Capsule – Made of polysaccharides and located outside cell wall. Helps bacteria not dry out and avoid being attacked. Bacteria with capsules are often disease causers.

33 3.1 Cell Theory D. Cytoplasm Fluid filled space inside cell membrane. Mostly water. E. Ribosomes Site where amino acids join together through dehydration synthesis to form protein molecules. F. Nucleoid Location where DNA is found in prokaryotes G. Plasmid Small piece of DNA separate from main chromosome

34 3.1 Cell Theory I. Flagella Long, whiplike structure used for moving. J. Pili Thinner, shorter, more numerous than flagella. Allows prokaryotes to stick to surfaces and other prokaryotes.

35 3.1 Cell Theory

36 Helpful Animations and Videos Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Comparison and Contrast discovery-elements-of-cells-video.htm


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