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Dynamics of Prokaryotic Growth Chapter 4. Principles of Bacterial Growth Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission –One cell divides into two Two into.

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Presentation on theme: "Dynamics of Prokaryotic Growth Chapter 4. Principles of Bacterial Growth Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission –One cell divides into two Two into."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dynamics of Prokaryotic Growth Chapter 4

2 Principles of Bacterial Growth Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission –One cell divides into two Two into four etc. –Cell growth is exponential Doubling of population with each cell division Generation time Time it takes for population to double a.k.a doubling time Varies among species

3 Growth can be calculated –N t = N 0 x 2 n (N t ) number of cells in population right now (N 0 ) original number of cells in the population (n) number of divisions Example –N 0 = 10 cells in original population –n = 12 »4 hours assuming 20 minute generation time –N t = 10 x 2 12 –N t = 10 x 4,096 –N t = 40,960 Principles of Bacterial Growth

4 Bacterial Growth in Nature Conditions in nature have profound effect on microbial growth –Cells sense changing environment Synthesize compounds useful for growth Cells produce multicellular associations to increase survivability –Example »Biofilms »Slime layers Biofilm layer Big question: how applicable is growing these things in lab if they do different things in nature.

5 Biofilm –Formation begins when planktonic bacteria attach to surfaces Other bacteria attach and grow on initial layer –Has characteristic architecture Contains open channels for movement of nutrients and waste –Cells within biofilms can cause disease Treatment becomes difficult –Architecture resists immune response and antimicrobials –Bioremediation is beneficial use of biofilm Add nutrients - biostimulation Add other bacteria - bioaugmentation Bacterial Growth in Nature

6 Interactions of mixed microbial communities –Prokaryotes live in mixed communities Many interactions are cooperative –Waste of one organism nutrient for another Some cells compete for nutrient –Synthesize toxic substance to inhibit growth of competitors Bacterial Growth in Nature

7 Obtaining Pure Culture Pure culture defined as population of cells derived from single cell –All cells genetically identical Cells grown in pure culture to study functions of specific species Pure culture obtained using special techniques –Aseptic technique -minimizes potential contamination Cells grown on culture media –Can be broth (liquid) or solid form

8 Obtaining Pure Culture Culture media can be liquid or solid –Liquid is broth media Used for growing large numbers of bacteria –Solid media is broth media with addition of agar Agar marine algae extract Liquefies at temperatures above 95°C Solidifies at 45°C –Remains solid at room temperature and body temperature –Bacteria grow in colonies on solid media surface All cells in colony descend from single cell Approximately 1 million cells produce 1 visible colony

9 Obtaining Pure Culture Streak-plate method –Simplest and most commonly used in bacterial isolation –Object is to reduce number of cells being spread Solid surface dilution Each successive spread decreases number of cells per streak Multiple techniques

10 Bacterial Growth in Laboratory Conditions Cells in laboratory grown in closed or batch system –No new input of nutrient and no release of waste Population of cells increase in predictable fashion –Follows a pattern called growth curve

11 Bacterial Growth in Laboratory Conditions The Growth Curve –Characterized by five distinct stages especially in broths Lag stage Exponential or log stage Stationary stage Death stage Phase of prolonged decline

12 Bacterial Growth in Laboratory Conditions Lag phase –Number of cells does not increase –Cells prepare for growth “tooling up” Log phase –Period of exponential growth Doubling of population with each generation –Produce primary metabolites Compounds required for growth –Late log phase Endospores Synthesize secondary metabolites –Used to enhance survival –Antibiotics

13 Stationary phase –Overall population remains relatively stable Cells exhausted nutrients Cell growth = cell death –Dying cell supply metabolites for replicating cells Death phase –Total number of viable cells decreases Decrease at constant rate –Death is exponential Much slower rate than growth Bacterial Growth in Laboratory Conditions

14 Phase of prolonged decline –Once nearly 99% of all cells dead, remaining cells enter prolonged decline –Marked by very gradual decrease in viable population –Phase may last months or years –Most fit cells survive Each new cell more fit than previous Evolution – change in genetics over time Bacterial Growth in Laboratory Conditions


16 World population

17 Colony growth on solid medium –In colony, cells eventually compete for resources –Position within colony determines resource availability Cells on edge of colony have little competition and significant oxygen stores Cells in the middle of colony have high cell density –Leads to increased competition and decreased availability of oxygen Bacterial Growth in Laboratory Conditions

18 Chemostats allow for continuous growth

19 Environmental Factors on Growth As group, prokaryotes inhabit nearly all environments –Some live in “comfortable” habitats –Some live in harsh environments Most of these are termed extremophiles and belong to domain Archaea Major conditions that influence growth –Temperature –Oxygen –pH –Water availability

20 Environmental Factors on Growth Temperature –Each species has well defined temperature range Within range lies optimum growth temperature –Prokaryotes divided into 5 categories Psychrophile –Optimum temperature -5°C to 15°C Found in Arctic and Antarctic regions Psychrotroph –20°C to 30°C Important in food spoilage Mesophile –25°C to 45°C More common Disease causing Thermophiles –45°C to 70°C Common in hot springs Hyperthermophiles –70°C to 110°C Usually members of Archaea Found in hydrothermal vents Psychro = “cold”

21 Oxygen –Prokaryotes divided based on oxygen requirements Obligate aerobes –Absolute requirement for oxygen »Use for energy production Facultative anaerobes –Grow better with oxygen »Use fermentation in absence of oxygen Microaerophiles –Require oxygen in lower concentrations »Higher concentration inhibitory Obligate anaerobes –No multiplication in presence of oxygen »May cause death Aerotolerant anaerobes –Indifferent to oxygen, grow with or without »Do not use oxygen to produce energy Environmental Factors on Growth

22 Oxygen

23 pH –Bacteria survive within pH range –Neutrophiles Multiply between pH of 5 to 8 –Maintain optimum near neutral –Acidophiles Thrive at pH below 5.5 –Maintains neutral internal pH, pumping out protons (H+) –Alkalophiles Grow at pH above 8.5 –Maintain neutral internal pH through sodium ion exchange »Exchange sodium ion for external protons Environmental Factors on Growth

24 Water availability –All microorganisms require water for growth –Water not available in all environments In high salt environments –Bacteria increase internal solute concentration »Synthesize small organic molecules –Osmotolerant bacteria tolerate high salt environments –Halophiles - bacteria that require high salt for cell growth termed

25 Nutritional Factors on Growth Growth of prokaryotes depends on nutritional factors as well as physical environment Main factors to be considered are: –Required elements –Growth factors –Energy sources –Nutritional diversity

26 Required elements –Major elements Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron –Essential components for macromolecules –Organisms classified based on carbon usage Heterotrophs –Use organic carbon as nutrient source Autotrophs –Use inorganic carbon (CO 2 ) as carbon source –Trace elements Cobalt, zinc, copper, molybdenum and manganese –Required in minute amounts Nutritional Factors on Growth

27 Growth factors –Some bacteria cannot synthesize some cell constituents These must be added to growth environment –Organisms can display wide variety of factor requirements Some need very few while others require many –These termed fastidious Nutritional Factors on Growth

28 Energy Sources –Organisms derive energy from sunlight or chemical compounds Phototrophs –Derive energy from sunlight Chemotrophs –Derive energy from chemical compounds –Organisms often grouped according to energy source Nutritional Factors on Growth

29 Nutritional Diversity –Organisms thrive due to their ability to use diverse sources of carbon and energy –Photoautotrophs Use sunlight and atmospheric carbon (CO 2 ) as carbon source –Called primary producers (Plants) –Chemoautotrophs a.k.a chemolithoautotrophs or chemolitotrophs Use inorganic compounds for energy and use CO 2 as carbon source –Photoheterotrophs Energy from sunlight, carbon from organic compounds –Chemoheterotrophs a.k.a chemoorganoheterotrophs or chemoorganotrophs Use organic compounds for energy and carbon source Nutritional Factors on Growth

30 Laboratory Cultivation Knowing environmental and nutritional factors makes it possible to cultivate organisms in the laboratory Organisms are grown on culture media –complex media –chemically defined media

31 Complex media –Contains a variety of ingredients –There is no exact chemical formula for ingredients Can be highly variable –Examples include Nutrient broth Blood agar Chocolate agar Laboratory Cultivation

32 Chemically defined media –Composed of precise amounts of pure chemical –Generally not practical for routine laboratory use Invaluable in research –Each batch is chemically identical »Does not introduce experimental variable Laboratory Cultivation

33 Special types of culture media –Used to detect or isolate particular organisms –Are divided into selective and differential media Laboratory Cultivation

34 Selective media –Inhibit the growth of unwanted organisms Allow only sought after organisms to grow –Example Thayer-Martin agar - antibiotics –For isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MacConkey agar – crystal violet and bile salts –For isolation of Gram negative bacteria of intestine Laboratory Cultivation

35 Differential media –Contains substance that bacteria change in recognizable way –Example Blood agar –Certain bacteria produce hemolysin to break down RBC »Hemolysis MacConkey agar –Contains pH indicator to identify bacteria that produce acid

36 Providing appropriate atmospheric conditions Bacteria can be grouped by oxygen requirement –Capnophile –Microaerophile –Anaerobe Laboratory Cultivation

37 Capnophile –Require increased CO 2 –Achieve higher CO 2 concentrations via Candle jar CO 2 incubator Microaerophile –Require higher CO 2 than capnophile –Incubated in gastight jar Chemical packet generates hydrogen and CO 2 Laboratory Cultivation

38 Anaerobe –Die in the presence of oxygen Even if exposed for short period of time –Incubated in anaerobe jar Chemical reaction converts atmospheric oxygen to water Organisms must be able to tolerate oxygen for brief period –Reducing agents in media achieve anaerobic environment Agents react with oxygen to eliminate it Sodium thyoglycolate –Anaerobic chamber also used for cultivation

39 Detecting Bacterial Growth Variety of techniques to determine growth –Numbers of cells –Total mass –Detection of cellular products

40 Direct cell count –Useful in determining total number of cells –Does not distinguish between living and dead cells –Methods include Direct microscopic count Use of cell counting instruments Detecting Bacterial Growth

41 Direct microscopic count –One of the most rapid methods –Number is measured in a known volume –Liquid dispensed in specialized slide Counting chamber –Viewed under microscope –Cells counted –Limitation Must have at least 10 million cells per mL to gain accurate estimate

42 Detecting Bacterial Growth Cell counting instruments –Count cells in suspension –Cells pass counter in single file –Measure changes in environment Coulter counter –Detects changes in electrical resistance Flow cytometer –Measures laser light

43 Viable cell count –Used to quantify living cells Cells able to multiply –Valuable in monitoring bacterial growth Often used when cell counts are too low for other methods –Methods include Plate counts Membrane filtration Most probable numbers Detecting Bacterial Growth

44 Plate counts –Measures viable cells growing on solid culture media –Count based on assumption that one cell gives rise to one colony Number of colonies = number of cells in sample –Ideal number to count between 30 and 300 colonies –Sample normally diluted in 10-fold increments –Plate count methods pour-plates spread-plates methods

45 Detecting Bacterial Growth Membrane filtration –Used with relatively low numbers –Known volume of liquid passed through membrane filter Filter pore size retains organism –Filter is placed on appropriate growth medium and incubated –Cells are counted

46 Detecting Bacterial Growth Most probable numbers (MPN) –Statistical assay –Series of dilution sets created Each set inoculated with 10- fold less sample than previous set –Sets incubated and results noted Results compared to MPN table –Table gives statistical estimation of cell concentration

47 Biomass measurement –Cell mass can be determined via Turbidity Total weight Amounts of cellular chemical constituents Detecting Bacterial Growth

48 Turbidity –Measures with spectrophotometer Measures light transmitted through sample –Measurement is inversely proportional to cell concentration »Must be used in conjunction with other test once to determine cell numbers –Limitation Must have high number of cells

49 Total Weight –Tedious and time consuming Not routinely used Useful in measuring filamentous organisms –Wet weight Cells centrifuged down and liquid growth medium removed Packed cells weighed –Dry weight Packed cells allowed to dry at 100°C 8 to 12 hours Cells weighed Detecting Bacterial Growth

50 Detecting cell products –Acid production pH indicator detects acids that result from sugar breakdown –Gas production Gas production monitored using Durham tube –Tube traps gas produced by bacteria –ATP Presence of ATP detected by use of luciferase –Enzyme catalyzes ATP dependent reaction »If reaction occurs ATP present  bacteria present Detecting Bacterial Growth

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