Presentation on theme: "Lecture Notes with Key Figures PowerPoint ® Presentation for B ROCK B IOLOGY OF M ICROORGANISMS ELEVENTH EDITION MICHAEL T. MADIGAN JOHN M. MARTINKO."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2 An Overview of Microbial Life PART I Cell Structure and Evolutionary History, p Elements of Cell and Viral Structure, p Arrangement of DNA in Microbial Cells, p The Tree of Life, p. 26 PART II Microbial Diversity, p Physiological Diversity of Microorganisms, p Prokaryotic Diversity, p Eukaryotic Microorganisms, p. 35
PART I Cell Structure and Evolutionary History, p Elements of Cell and Viral Structure, p. 22
All microbial cells share certain basic structures in common, such as cytoplasm, a cytoplasmic membrane, ribosomes, and (usually) a cell wall.
Two structural types of cells are recognized: the prokaryote and the eukaryote. Prokaryotic cells have a simpler internal structure than eukaryotic cells, lacking membrane-enclosed organelles (Figure 2.1).
Viruses are not cells but depend on cells for their replication (Figure 2.3c).
Ribosomes—the cell's protein-synthesizing factories—are particulate structures composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and various proteins suspended in the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes interact with several cytoplasmic proteins and messenger and transfer RNAs in the key process of protein synthesis (translation) (Figure 1.4).
2.2 Arrangement of DNA in Microbial Cells, p. 24 Genes govern the properties of cells, and a cell's complement of genes is called its genome. DNA is arranged in cells to form chromosomes. In prokaryotes, there is usually a single circular chromosome; whereas in eukaryotes, several linear chromosomes exist.
Plasmids are circular extrachromosomal genetic elements (DNA), nonessential for growth, found in prokaryotes.
The nucleus is a membrane-enclosed structure that contains the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells. The nucleoid, in contrast, is the aggregated mass of DNA that constitutes the chromosome of cells of Bacteria and Archaea (Figure 2.4).
2.3 The Tree of Life, p. 26 Comparative ribosomal RNA sequencing has defined the three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Molecular sequencing has also shown that the major organelles of Eukarya have evolutionary roots in the Bacteria and has yielded new tools for microbial ecology and clinical microbiology.
Although species of Bacteria and Archaea share a prokaryotic cell structure, they differ dramatically in their evolutionary history.
Evolution is the change in a line of descent over time leading to new species or varieties. The evolutionary relationships between life forms are the subject of the science of phylogeny.
In addition to the genome in the chromosomes of the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes contain their own genomes (DNA arranged in circular fashion, as in Bacteria) and ribosomes.
Using ribosomal RNA sequencing technology (Figure 2.6), these organelles have been shown to be highly derived ancestors of specific lineages of Bacteria (Figure 2.7).
Mitochondria and chloroplasts were thus once free-living cells that established stable residency in cells of Eukarya eons ago. The process by which this stable arrangement developed is known as endosymbiosis.
PART II Microbial Diversity, p Physiological Diversity of Microorganisms, p. 28
All cells need carbon and energy sources. Chemoorganotrophs obtain their energy from the oxidation of organic compounds. Chemolithotrophs obtain their energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds. Phototrophs contain pigments that allow them to use light as an energy source. (Figure 2.8)
Autotrophs use carbon dioxide as their carbon source, whereas heterotrophs use organic carbon.
Extremophiles thrive under environmental conditions in which higher organisms cannot survive. Table 2.1 gives classes and examples of extremophiles.
2.5 Prokaryotic Diversity, p. 30 Several lineages are present in the domains Bacteria and Archaea, and an enormous diversity of cell morphologies and physiologies are represented there.
Retrieval and analysis of ribosomal RNA genes from cells in natural samples have shown that many phylogenetically distinct but as yet uncultured prokaryotes exist in nature.
The Proteobacteria is the largest division (called a phylum) of Bacteria (Figure 2.9).
The Cyanobacteria (Figure 2.12) are phylogenetic relatives of gram-positive bacteria and are oxygenic phototrophs.
There are two lineages of Archaea, the Euryarchaeota and the Crenarchaeota (Figure 2.18).
2.6 Eukaryotic Microorganisms, p. 35 Microbial eukaryotes are a diverse group that includes algae, protozoa, fungi, and slime molds (Figure 2.22).
Collectively, microbial eukaryotes are known as the Protista. Some protists, such as the algae, are phototrophic.
Cells of algae and fungi have cell walls, whereas the protozoa do not.
Some algae and fungi have developed mutualistic associations called lichens.