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Cells!. CA Standards Cell Biology  1.c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells!. CA Standards Cell Biology  1.c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells!

2 CA Standards Cell Biology  1.c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.

3 The History of Microscopes and Cell Theory

4  Janssen produced 1 st microscope 1595


6 1665 Robert Hooke drawing of cork. Called chambers cells because they reminded him of tiny rooms in a monastery.



9 Plant cells  1838: Mattias Schleiden discovered plants are made of cells.

10  1839 Theodor Schwann claimed animals are also made of cells

11 1858: Rudolf Virchow stated that living cells come only from other cells.

12 The Cell Theory  The observations of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow form the cell theory. Schleiden Schwann Virchow

13 1. All living things are made of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms 3. All cells arise from existing cells The Cell Theory

14 Our objective:  Compare and contrast how prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses differ in structure and function.

15 What is a cell?  The smallest structural and functional unit of all living organisms.

16 2 Types of Cells  Prokaryotic  Eukaryotic

17 2 Types of Cells  Prokaryotic Pro = first; kary= cell  Eukaryotic Eu= true; kary= cell

18 All living things….  Are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

19 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Smaller, simpler Larger, complex

20 Do you think we are prokaryotes or eukaryotes and why???

21 Prokaryotic Cells Who?  Unicellular bacteria (one- celled) What?  No true nucleus  One circular DNA  No membrane- bound organelles  First lived at least 3.5 billion years ago

22 Prokaryotes  A bacterium is a prokaryotic cell

23 Fig.3: Prokaryotic Cell (Bacillus megaterium)

24 Some bacteria have Flagella Long, threadlike structures which enable movement.

25 Bacteria are important to all life on Earth. They…  Decompose dead things.  Fix nitrogen in the atmosphere to make it available to plants.  Digest sewage.  Break down oil from oil spills.  Synthesize medicines.  Help animals (including us) digest food.  Some cause disease.

26 Copy, color and label the Prokaryotic Cell (p. 472)

27 Eukaryotic Cells Who?  Fungi  Plants  Animals What?  True nucleus with nuclear membrane  DNA (genes) located in nucleus  Membrane-bound organelles  Complex structure and function  Evolved 2.5 billion years ago


29 Fig. 1: Eukaryotic Cell (Mouse Cell)

30 Fig. 2: Candida albicans- Yeast (Eukaryotic Cell)

31 Plant Cell

32 Copy, color and label the Eukaryotic Animal Cell (p. 175) A= Rough E.R. (Endoplasmic Reticulum) B= Cytoplasm C= Golgi apparatus D= Nucleolus E= Nucleus F= Mitochondria G= Smooth E.R. H= Ribosome I= Cell membrane

33 Copy, color and label the Eukaryotic Plant Cell (p. 175) A= Cell Wall B= Nucleus C= Cell Membrane D=Rough E.R. E= Chloroplast F= Vacuole G=Mitochondria H=Golgi apparatus G H



36 Make a Venn Diagram Comparing and Contrasting Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

37 Common Features of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells 1. Cell membrane- encloses and protects the cell 2. Cytoplasm - interior fluid of cell 3. Cytoskeleton – microscopic fibers within cytoplasm 4. Ribosomes- structure on which proteins are made (Eukaryotic Ribosomes are larger and more complex) 5. DNA- provides instructions for making protein, regulate cellular activity and reproduce. (Eukaryotic DNA is more complex)

38 Cell Animation  on/animation.php?ani=162&cat=bio logy on/animation.php?ani=162&cat=bio logy

39 Viruses! Not cells… Not alive…. So what are they?  A virus is a tiny particle made of nucleic acid (genetic material), protein and sometimes lipids that can only replicate by infecting living cells.  Most viruses are composed of a core of either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid.  Viruses are NOT alive: They don’t grow, develop, or carry out respiration. They do not have organelles or a nucleus.

40  Viruses may have only a few genes or over 100 genes.  They come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

41 Viruses enter cells and use the cell to make copies of themselves, often destroying the cell in the process.  Lytic Infection- virus enters cell, uses the cell’s energy, makes copies of itself and causes the cell to burst.  Lysogenic Infection- virus enters cell, embeds its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and replicates itself- indefinitely or it may switch to the lytic cycle.

42 Viruses cause many human diseases.  Polio  Measles  AIDS  Mumps  Influenza  Yellow fever  Rabies  The common cold  Herpes  Hepatitis  Genital Warts

43 Bacteria cause many human diseases and problems.  Tuberculosis  Strep throat  Scarlet fever  Diptheria  Lyme disease  Tooth decay  Meningitis  Chlamydia  Gonorrhea  Syphilis

44 Make a Venn Diagram Comparing and Contrasting Cells and Viruses (use page 483 for help!) Viruses Cell s

45 Key points  Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles.  Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles allowing for thousands of chemical reactions to occur at once.  Viruses are not cells; they consist of only a protein coat surrounding a strand of genetic material, either RNA or DNA.

46 TEST PRACTICE! Eukaryotic cells are different from prokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells  A are much smaller.  B have permeable membranes.  C have a higher rate of reproduction.  D have nuclei.

47 TEST PRACTICE! Which of these best completes this concept map?  A an animal cell  B a prokaryotic cell  C a virus  D a plant cell

48 HOMEWORK:  Read 19-1, 19-2 and 19-3 on Bacteria and Viruses and answer the Section Review questions. (15 pts) DUE: TUESDAY!  Work on Cell Model  Read 7-1  Read 7-2 and Answer Section Review Questions in notebook (5 pts)

49 Eukaryotic Organelle Chart  Complete the chart and label the diagrams.

50 Eukaryotic Cell Model 30 points  Choose an animal cell or a plant cell.  Create a 3-D model of that cell, including all organelles. (15 pts)  Either label the model directly or create a key for the model. (5 pts)  You will be graded on creativity and likeness (how close it resembles a real cell). (10 pts)  For extra credit (10 pts), create a bacterial cell (prokaryote) in addition.

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